这是用户在 2024-3-9 5:42 为 https://www.advanced-personality.com/s/wiki/enneagram/e4 保存的双语快照页面,由 沉浸式翻译 提供双语支持。了解如何保存?

Enneatyp 4

Enneatype 4
Enneatype 4“过度推理者”

Enneatipo 4

Eneatipo 4

النوع 4

Эннеатип 4


Enneatype 4 is always described in other sources and websites as an individualist, a creative or even a romantic; the focus here is primarily on the belief that this Enneatype perceives itself as special and unique. However, this popular image has literally absolutely nothing to do with Enneatype 4. In reality, Enneatype 4 does not describe a creative, individualistic person, but an intellectual and self-absorbed individual who closely resembles the stereotypical, popular image of Enneatype 5. This article describes the true nature of this Enneatype and explains, among other things, its deep motivations.
Enneatype 4在其他来源和网站上总是被描述为个人主义者、创意者甚至浪漫主义者;这里的重点主要是相信这种Enneatype认为自己是特殊和独特的。然而,这个流行的图像实际上与Enneatype 4完全没有关系。事实上,Enneatype 4并没有描述一个有创造力的、个人主义的人,而是一个智力和自我专注的人,他非常类似于Enneatype 5的刻板的、流行的形象。这篇文章描述了这种Enneatype的真实性质,并解释了它的深层动机。

In reality, according to Oscar Ichazo, the inventor of Enneagram, this Enneatype describes a person who, due to trauma, has an excessive urge to justify and analyze in every situation, especially in interpersonal ones; this makes them extremely attentive to all perceived reactions, actions and possibly even mistakes in both themselves and other people. This constant justification, which manifests itself in all situations in life, also shows itself as a tendency towards melancholy, as it is difficult for them to fathom why it is so hard to connect with other people and society. Due to their self-absorbed nature, this Enneatype also has a pronounced orientation towards the intellect, with which they try to connect with people and the world.
事实上,根据九型图的发明者奥斯卡·伊查佐(Oscar Ichazo)的说法,这种九型图描述了一个人,由于创伤,在每种情况下,尤其是在人际关系中,都有过度的证明和分析的冲动;这使得他们对所有感知到的反应、行为,甚至可能是自己和他人的错误都非常关注。这种持续的理由,在生活中的所有情况下都表现出来,也表现为忧郁的倾向,因为他们很难理解为什么与他人和社会联系如此困难。由于他们自我专注的天性,这种Enneatype也有一个明显的智力取向,他们试图用智力与人和世界联系起来。

Furthermore, there are two different characters within this enneatype, representing two different realities and possibilities: The Over-Reasoner and the Under-Reasoner. The Under-Reasoner easily gets lost in intellectual labyrinths and unimportant details, having difficulty understanding the big picture in ideas and situations. Therefore finds great importance in irrelevant ideas and details; due to limited understanding, tends to have a pessimistic, superficial mindset that lacks depth. The Over-Reasoner, on the other hand, describes an argumentative, critical and rationalizing person who wants to justify every action and every idea with detailed explanations. Tends to debate every little thing and behaves like a know-it-all who uses this argumentative attitude to seek recognition for their own intellect from other people. A single person can embody both characters in the course of their life, even at the same time. The following sections explain the entirety of this enneatype.


Ego-Fixation: Over-Reasoner
Trauma: Criticised by the father
Felt criticised in the childhood relationship with a father figure. The own father figure is perceived as profound, enigmatic, critical and unpredictable. Therefore also projects critical thoughts towards themselves and other people.

Dichotomy: Domain of Intellect
Moves between two extremes in the domain of the intellect. This domain includes any intellectual, scientific or scholastic pursuits. Deception is the poison of this area as they expect to be disappointed or criticised by others - leads to over-analysing other people and all situations.

Ego-Delusion: Melancholy
Their delusion is that they are constantly living in a state of melancholy as they perceive that others are out to criticise them for no good reason. They try to fathom why they find it so difficult to connect with their society by deeply exploring their own faults as well as those of others.

This ego perceives itself as rational, intelligent, educated, knowledgeable and as a cunning debater. The reality of this fixation is expressed as projections of a melancholic, argumentative, envious, illogical, critical and moody person.

Ego-Position: Self-justification
Due to a trauma, this ego questions everything in life with a "why?" while trying to find a cause or meaning in life as they struggle to understand the world and its people; this constant questioning of all details always makes this ego seem thoughtful. Trying to justify and rationalise everything it and others do. Could therefore expect the worst out of situations.

Ego-Justification: Apprehension
The ego position of constant self-justification is justified with concerns stemming from its tendency to melancholy.

Ego-Balancer: Reasonable & informed
Perceives themselves as very reasonable and informed about life, wishing that other people recognise this quality about them.

Ego-Reaction: Discouragement
The sudden reaction of the ego to feel strongly discouraged by the critical reactions of others.

Ego-Insecurity: Envies
An imbalance in the domain of intellect makes them feel insecure about their own envy, as they do not like it.

Passion: Envy
They want to be one of those people who are successful in life. Feel envy towards people who are more intelligent, richer, more successful or more beautiful than they are and have more in life. At the same time, they have a critical attitude towards such people, while denying their own envy.

Virtue: Equanimity
Equanimity causes the ego to stop always having to justify and analyse everything. Accepts things as they are.

Trapdoor: Authenticity
This ego must develop a true, authentic understanding of the world through self-analysis so that it can rid itself of its excessive tendency of constantly over-reasoning about all situations.

Holy Idea: Origin
Must gain the realisation that all individuals are fundamentally born with the same laws and that the meaning of their lives is already inherent in their existence.

Difficulty: Shame
Often has a tendency to be ashamed of their own faults and then hide from others so that they don't see their flaws.

Immoral Force: Narcissism
One's own envy of other people leads to a narcissistic relationship with oneself. This ego is not aware of its own self-centredness and then criticises other people for their narcissistic behaviour.

Existential Attitude: Easygoing - Intolerant
Is easygoing on the one hand, but intolerant on the other.

Defense Mechanisms: Sublimation, Reaction formation
Sublimation is the process of transforming negative emotions into more meaningful, more acceptable manifestations. Instead of taking out frustration on the environment, for example, distraction can be sought through an activity. Such activities could be physical activities, for example.

Reaction formation is when a person shows the exact opposite reaction or attitude to emotions, thoughts and actions that are perceived as negative or unacceptable. Instead of intolerance, for example, kindness is shown.

Compensatory Mechanism: Crime
Triggered by stress, they may seek compensation by imagining and possibly even acting out criminal scenarios. In more extreme cases, this can even degenerate into physical explosions in which they injure others, which they regret afterwards.

Possible Disorder: Borderline personality disorder
In isolated, extreme manifestations of this ego, it is possible to develop borderline personality disorder.

Way of self-realization: Clarity
The Over-Reasoners's way out is clarity of thought. Must learn to lead a life without ambivalence and excessive reasoning.

Basic Description

Enneatype 4 feels a sense of melancholy in relation to life, which is triggered by a constant state of overanalysis. This analysis encompasses all areas of life and expresses itself as an excessive need to justify everything in the world, especially details of their own behaviour as well as the behaviour of others - this makes them extremely cautious and attentive to all actions and words of others. The cause of this behaviour was a childhood in which they felt they were criticised by a father figure for no good reason; they therefore project this attitude onto themselves and other people, with the ego tending to constantly question and criticise both their own qualities and those of others. As this ego is part of the relation-instinct (sx), they also have a deep need to connect with their society in some way, craving recognition and acceptance; in their case, they are most likely to want to be recognised for their intellect. Unfortunately, they usually find it difficult to establish such a connection as they are too caught up in a state of constant reflection and therefore discover too many deficits between themselves and their society. However, they also feel both envy and have complexes towards people who are more successful in life than they are, which is why they develop a critical attitude towards them at the same time. Their intense tendency to over-justify all situations is expressed as a fixation on the domain of the intellect. Within this domain, life constantly switches back and forth between the extremes of the positive and negative domain.

Domain of Intellect
Representative Characters

Argumentative Character

The argumentative character manifests itself as someone who is argumentative, critical, rationalising and wants to justify all actions and things with detailed explanations or debates every little thing. Behaves like a know-it-all or smart-alec. Is sensitive to being challenged in their own intellect.
Superficial Character

The superficial character has a tendency to get lost in intellectual labyrinths and gets caught up in unimportant details. Has difficulty understanding the big picture and therefore takes a pessimistic stance. Finds great meaning in unfounded or irrelevant ideas and concepts.
Positive Domain

Can have a high intellectual capacity to recognise connections and make meaningful judgements. Leans towards using the mind to make judgements.
At best, they have the quality of not losing sight of the essentials and not dwelling on unimportant details.
Negative Domain

Thinks too much about unimportant things, takes words too seriously and may argue just to argue.
Could have a lack of desire to really engage in a deep conversation or relationship with their counterpart, causing them to jump to premature conclusions.

An imbalance in these domains can lead to envy or jealousy; in the worst case to crime.

Center ⇔ Relation(sx)

The Relation centre consists of Enneatypes 2, 3 and 4.

These ego fixations have in common that they have an instinctive need to build relationships with their society in order to survive. This gives rise to an emotional ego whose intrinsic value and feelings depend on relationships with other people. The cause of this need can be found in a childhood where there was an empty, unfulfilling relationship with at least one parent; usually a father figure. Inside, they are characterised by feelings of anger, fear and a strong social complex.

Strategy ⇔ Reactive

The reactive group consists of the Enneatypes 4, 6 and 8.

In the case of stress, problems and conflicts, they are prone to become very emotionally reactive and find it difficult to keep their emotions to themselves - even if the problem may be relatively minor. Therefore, they tend to show their own frustration to others very quickly - expecting similar reactions from others to what frustrates them.

Social style ⇔ Withdrawn

The withdrawn group consists of the Enneatypes 4, 5 and 9.

Their subconscious causes them to alienate themselves from other people in some way, be it intentionally or not. These egos therefore have a strong sense of alienation from both other people and the world based on their particular ego delusion. As a result, they have difficulty connecting with their society. This social style does not necessarily go hand in hand with social introversion, but rather relates to deep irrational reasons that are related to the enneatype.

Relation style ⇔ Frustration

The frustration group consists of the Enneatypes 1, 4 and 7.

They have strong ideas about how the world around them should be - but when the world and situations then do not meet their standards, they very quickly experience strong feelings of frustration and disappointment. Since they know what makes them happy, both their life and their sense of self usually manifest as an eternal search for a certain ideal.

Used Literature

  • The Enneagrams of the Divine Forms: Perfect, Eternal, Unchanging Truths.
    - Oscar Ichazo
  • The Enneagrams of the Fixations: The Original Teachings.
    - Oscar Ichazo
Everything on this page was written independently in the website author's original writing style.