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Class of 2024


doctoral thesis

Color Selection from a Global Perspective- An Intercultural Study of Colors in Anime

Character Design

Advising professor : Ko Jeonghoon

Li Yongjun

Dongbang Culture University

Dept. of Culture and Arts Contents

Major in Content Convergence Design


YE ZIQI

目录

- 3 -


.Introduction - 1 -


1. Background and purpose of the topic - 1 -


2. Research methods - 3 -


3. Prior research and literature review - 11 -


4. Background of animation character design - 22 -


Ⅱ. Color of animation character design and market characteristics - 33 -


1. Composition of animated character colors - 33 -


2. Animation character psychology and culture - 35 -


3. Scope of use of animated characters - 37 -


4. Characteristics of animated character marketing - 39 -


III. Interpretation of character color design from a cross-cultural perspective - 42 -


1. Cross-Cultural Overview - 43 -


2. Analysis of role color across cultural backgrounds - 45 -


3. Various cultural color design methods based on psychological prototypes - 48 -


4. Cultural differences in understanding of character color design - 51 -


5. Animated character color extraction algorithm - 54 -


IV. Research Design - 62 -


1. Character color research model and research questions - 62 -


2. Research steps - 68 -


3. Experimental process - 98 -


4. Comprehensive analysis of research - 105 -


V. Conclusion - 116 -


1. Research summary - 116 -


2. Theoretical and practical significance - 119 -


3. Research limitations - 122 -


4. Future research directions - 122 -


References - 124 -


[Figure] 1 Research model diagram (drawn by the author) - 4 -


[Figure] 2 Research model construction diagram - 62 -


[Picture] 3 Animation character color research model diagram - 63 -


[Figure] 4 Schematic diagram of character image and corresponding prototype database - 98 -


[Figure] 5 Example of preprocessing results - 99 -


[Figure] 6 Color correction comparison diagram - 100 -


[Figure] 7 HSV color space coordinate system - 101 -


[Figure] 8 parts of color extraction analysis display - 105 -


[Figure] Schematic diagram of the color extraction results of 9 prototype tag pictures in HSV space - 105 -


[Figure] 10 Histogram of each color component (H, S, V) - 107 -


[Figure] 11 Three-dimensional scatter plot of clustering results - 108 -


[Figure] 12 Color difference analysis chart of prototypes of 13 films - 109 -


[Figure] 13 Average color difference between 8 archetypal characters in 13 films - 110 -


[Figure] 14 Trend analysis of color difference values ​​over time - 111 -


[Figure] 15 Heat map of correlation analysis results - 112 -


[Figure] 16 Scatter plot of color difference of related prototypes - 113 -


[Figure] 17 Boxplots of 'alien vs wiseman' and 'shadow vs wiseman' by country - 114 -


[Figure] 18 Box plots of 'alien vs shadow' and 'anima vs shadow' by country - 114 -


[Figure] 19 Scatter plot of the change trend of color difference values ​​of prototypes with strong and weak correlations according to the year of release - 115 -


[Figure] 20 Color preference distribution histogram - 118 -

[圖] 21 Quantile-Quantile Plot 图表- 119 -


<Table> 1Research Hypothesis Table - 4 -


<Table> 2 Comparison of color clustering algorithms and applied scientific research results - 59 -


<Table> 3 Statistical table of the number of appearances in animated movies - 69 -


<Table> 4 Movie and character image selection list - 70 -


<Table> 5 Prototype and description table - 70 -


<Table> 6 Adjective Comparison List - 72 -


<Table> 7 Final selected character list - 72 -


<Table> 8 Character Archetype Classification Discussion Table - 75 -


<Table> 9 Role list and corresponding prototype table - 95 -


<Table> 10HSV color value description - 102 -


<Table> 12 Regression analysis results of color use and character perception - 119 -


<Table> 13 Analysis of significant differences in emotional responses to color under different cultural backgrounds - 120 -


Korean summary


This study categorized the current status of research on animation character design and found that there is a relative lack of research on multicultural animation character color. Therefore, this study summarizes the widely accepted color design laws of animation characters in various cultural regions. It aims to explore: First, systematically classify color theory, visual communication theory, Jungian psychological prototypes, multicultural color studies and animation character design theory, and combine them with related examples to design the appearance of animation characters in story narrative and audience experience. shows the importance of


This study was based on Jungian theory in the field of playwriting and combined with a color clustering algorithm to conduct an exploratory empirical study to investigate whether there are specific color differences in character images representing different prototypes in different animation works. According to us, there are significant color differences between different prototypes.


In terms of color difference calculation, we use the CIEDE2000 formula to calculate the color difference between prototype characters pairwise and sort them according to the size of the color difference. The pairwise t-test and Bonferroni correction results show that the color difference between different prototypes is significant. Visualization shows the average color difference and standard error between different prototypes, with the prototype pairs with the smallest color difference including 'Alien vs Shadow', 'Shadow vs Trickster' and 'Alien vs Trickster', and the pair with the largest color difference. Prototype pairs include ‘Anima vs Shadow’, ‘Self vs Shadow’ and ‘Self vs Anima’, reflecting different styles and features in visual design.


This study provides color design laws from a multicultural perspective on animation character design and has important reference value for future animation character design and related research.


Keywords: multicultural perspective, animation character design, Jung prototype, clustering algorithm, CIEDE2000 formula

摘要


This study sorted out the current status of animation character design research and found that cross-cultural animation character color research is relatively scarce. Therefore, this study aims to explore the color design rules of animated characters that are widely accepted in different cultural regions. First of all, the color theory, visual communication theory, Jungian psychological archetypes, cross-cultural color research and animation character design theory are systematically sorted out, and discussed with relevant cases, revealing the impact of animated character appearance design on story narrative and audience experience. importance.


This study is based on Jungian theory in the field of drama and combined with the color clustering algorithm to conduct an exploratory empirical study to explore whether the character images representing different archetypes in different animation works have specific color differences. The study found significant color differences between the different prototypes.


In terms of color difference calculation, the CIEDE2000 formula was used to calculate the color difference between prototype characters in pairs, and sorted by the size of the color difference. Paired t-test and Bonferroni correction results show that the color differences between different prototypes are significant. Visually display the average color difference and standard error between different prototypes. It is found that the prototype pairs with the smallest color difference include "alien vs shadow", "shadow vs trickster" and "alien vs trickster"; the prototype pairs with the largest color difference include "anima vs shadow" ”, “alien vs anima”, “self vs shadow” and “self vs anima”, reflecting different styles and functions in visual design.


This study provides color design rules from a cross-cultural perspective for animated character design, and has important reference value for future animated character design and related research.


Keywords: cross-cultural perspective, animation character design, Jungian archetype, clustering algorithm, CIEDE2000 formula


Ⅰ.Introduction


Background and purpose of the topic

背景


Under the background of globalization, the animation industry faces a diversified international audience, which requires animation producers to be familiar with the color application of local culture, but also to understand and adapt to the use of color in different cultural backgrounds. Color plays an extremely important role in animation. Compared with black and white images, the use of color in animation and multimedia presentations has a significant positive effect on memory retention and object recognition. As a unique visual language, color exists at the intersection of psychology, physiology and physics. It is the psychological perception of the human eye and nervous system's response to the physical properties of light. [1] 1 .


Color, as a unique visual language, exists at the intersection of psychology, physiology and physics. It is the psychological perception of the human eye and nervous system's response to the physical characteristics of light [2] . Xia Wenying and Tian Shaoxu combined the influence of color with the Three Realms Theory of the Tang Dynasty in China to explore how color can evoke emotional responses, stimulate associations, and form unique color artistic conception in animation [3] .


The believability of animated characters, as the core of the film, plays a key role in the emotional interaction with the audience. The appearance design of the character, especially the application of color, not only emphasizes the character's personality and role in the story, but also becomes an important element in attracting the audience and conveying the emotion of the story [4] . Further explore how color can serve as a bridge for cross-cultural communication, especially between audiences of different cultural backgrounds. Characters and their color design are an effective way to stimulate the audience's emotional perception in a cross-cultural context, and have a crucial impact on the narrative structure.


Although research awareness in this area is growing, research on audiences' character perceptions of animated character color design in cross-cultural contexts remains scarce. This study aims to fill the gap in this research field by exploring how comprehensive analysis can convey character personality and emotions through color design in a cross-cultural context.

目的


This research aims to deeply explore the cross-cultural application of color in the field of animated character design. By systematically analyzing the symbolic meaning and emotional response of audiences to color in different cultural backgrounds, it will improve the global adaptability of animated characters and win audiences. Group identification proposes a set of scientific color design strategies.


This research will integrate color theory, psychological concepts and cross-cultural research methods to create a comprehensive research framework for animation character color. This model provides a complete set of theoretical support for the color design of animated characters. It aims to assist designers in making scientific decisions when selecting and combining colors, and to deeply explore the symbols and meanings of colors in various cultures. Emotional meaning.


Explore the symbolic effect of color and its impact on psychology, and use empirical research to understand readers' symbolic and emotional views on color in different cultural backgrounds. The specific implementation method includes conducting cross-cultural questionnaires and focus group discussions, with the purpose of collecting and exploring the audience's perception and feedback data on various colors in different cultural environments. This batch of data will reveal the role of cultural differences in color perception for designers, and provide them with guidance on the appropriate use of color in character creation, further enhancing the presentation of character emotions and empathy with the audience.


A cross-cultural approach to color construction based on research findings and specific design strategies developed for it. This set of strategies covers rules for choosing and combining colors, using color psychology methods, color planning in character situations, and suggestions for cross-cultural adaptation. With these suggestions, designers can use color to create characters that are deeply appealing and relatable across a variety of cultural contexts.


Promote mutual communication and understanding between people from different cultural backgrounds. Integrating the tones and emotional attributes of various cultures into character creation can make animation creation a bond of interaction between cultures, thereby strengthening global audiences' understanding and recognition of multiple cultures, and further enhancing the international influence and influence of animation. Cultural inclusiveness.


expected contribution


From an academic perspective, this study aims to fill the lack of knowledge in the field of cross-cultural color in animation character design, and strive to promote the comprehensive application of color science, psychology and cross-cultural education in animation creation. By creating and confirming a comprehensive research model of animation character color science, this study presents a new research framework and methodological guidance for scholars. In addition, the empirical research findings will further deepen and enrich our cross-cultural insights into color symbolism and emotional responses, providing valuable data and reference for subsequent research.


In specific application practice, this research brings science-based and pragmatic suggestions to animation designers in order to create a character that is both highly attractive and full of cultural identity in the international market. Designers can use color selection and fusion, emotional color expression, character situational tone design, and cross-cultural adaptability to enhance the character's visual experience and emotional resonance, further increasing the competitive edge and influence of animation in the market.


Research and use of cross-cultural color design can further enhance dialogue and insights between different cultures, helping global audiences accept and appreciate cultural diversity and inclusiveness. As a cultural transmission tool, animation creation can convey multicultural concepts and emotional resonance through appropriate color matching, thereby enhancing cultural resonance and promoting social harmony. Finally, the goal of this research is to promote the innovation and progress of animation technology and bring more traditional animations with both cultural value and unique visual appeal to global audiences.


Research methods


Clarification of the theoretical framework


This study is based on the hypothesis that audiences from different cultural backgrounds have different emotional and cognitive responses to the colors used in animated characters. Therefore, through cross-cultural comparative analysis of color design, factors that promote or hinder cross-cultural communication can be revealed. To guide this research, color psychology theory will be used to explain the impact of color on emotion, and cross-cultural communication theory will be used to analyze differences in color perception under different cultural backgrounds.

[] 1研究模型图(作者自绘)


The following are the hypotheses of this study


<Table> 1 Research hypothesis table


Hypothesis H1: The use of color will have an impact on the perception of animated character personality in different cultural backgrounds.


H1-1: In different cultural backgrounds, the use of specific colors will enhance the perception of positive traits of animated characters (+).


H1-2: In different cultural backgrounds, the use of specific colors will enhance the perception of negative traits of animated characters (+).


H1-3: In different cultural contexts, the use of specific colors will enhance the perception of the anima/animus archetypal qualities of animated characters (+).


H1-4: The use of specific colors will enhance the perception of the sage archetypal qualities of animated characters, expressed cross-culturally as symbols of wisdom and knowledge (+).


H1-5: The use of color will influence the audience’s perception of new beginnings and hope in the child archetype, emphasizing innocence and potential across cultures (+).


H1-6: The use of specific colors will enhance the perception of the trickster archetypal qualities of animated characters, symbolizing change and the ability to challenge the status quo (+).


H1-7: The use of color will enhance the perception of the integrity of the animated character's self-archetype and the individuation process (+).


H1-8: The use of specific colors will enhance the perception of alien archetypal qualities of animated characters, expressed cross-culturally as symbols of exploration of the unknown and heterogeneity (+).


Hypothesis H2: Audiences’ preferences for the use of color in animated characters under different cultural backgrounds will affect their interpretation of the character’s personality.


H2-1: There is a positive correlation (+) between color preference and positive perceptions of character personality in a cross-cultural context.


H2-2: There is a positive association (+) between color preference and negative perceptions of character personality in a cross-cultural context.


Hypothesis H3: The impact of color on the perception of animated character personality in a cross-cultural context can be explained by the psychological symbolism and cultural significance of color.


H3-1: The psychological symbolism of color has a positive impact on positive perceptions of character personality in a cross-cultural context (+).


H3-2: The cultural significance of color has a positive impact on positive perceptions of character personality in a cross-cultural context (+).


Hypothesis H4: Through field surveys, focus group discussions, data processing, and statistical analysis, the specific relationship between color use and the perception of animated character personality can be discovered.


H4-1: Field research will reveal the preliminary relationship between color use and character perception in a specific cultural context.


H4-2: Focus group discussions will deepen the qualitative understanding of the relationship between color use and perceptions of character personality.


H4-3: Data processing and statistical analysis will quantify the impact of color usage on the perception of character personality.


Diversity of participant options


The study used a variety of methods to ensure the diversity of participants. First, through fieldwork, we collected preliminary reactions to the color of animated characters from audiences in different cultural backgrounds. Next, focus groups were conducted to gain insights into audiences’ emotional responses and symbolic meanings to specific color combinations. Finally, through a user perception questionnaire, the audience’s preferences and understanding of different colors were quantitatively analyzed. The specific implementation steps of each method are as follows: fieldwork included actual audience surveys in multiple countries, focus group discussions were conducted in professional laboratories, and user perception questionnaires were distributed through online platforms. Experimental tests were also conducted and a cross-cultural color selection experiment was designed to observe subjects' color choices in different scenarios. To improve the general applicability and credibility of the research results. The last step is data analysis and quantitative analysis: using statistical methods to analyze the questionnaire data and discover color selection tendencies and patterns. Qualitative analysis: Analyze text records such as focus group discussions and in-depth interviews to understand the underlying reasons for choosing colors in different cultural backgrounds.


The research sample includes 13 of the most popular animated films, with 8 main characters selected from each film, totaling more than 100 characters for analysis.


Participants are mainly experts in the fields of film and psychology, including film critics, psychology researchers, university professors and senior filmmakers. Participants were selected through random sampling to ensure a representative sample. Animation and design professionals: including animators, character designers, and color experts. Non-professionals: general audiences and color enthusiasts, ensuring that the research is not limited to professional perspectives.


Through the selection and research methods of the above diverse participants, we can have an overall understanding of color selection from a global perspective, especially the use of cross-cultural colors in animated character design. Only in this way can we help design animated characters that are more culturally inclusive and have global appeal.


Methodological limitations


The first is Python, which is used for data cleaning and statistical analysis. Research uses Python libraries (such as Pandas) to clean raw data, including processing missing values, duplicate data and outliers. And use Python libraries (such as SciPy, StatsModels) for descriptive statistics, hypothesis testing, regression analysis, etc.


Next is Photoshop for image preprocessing. This study was used to adjust image size and resolution to ensure consistency across all images. In addition, it is also used to perform color correction on images to ensure accurate image colors for subsequent analysis.


MATLAB again, this study is used for color analysis, converting images from RGB color space to HSV and CIELAB color spaces for easy analysis, and using MATLAB to extract color features from images, such as average color values, color distribution, etc.


Finally, focus group discussions and the Delphi method: for character archetype classification and animated character attractiveness. Participants were organized to discuss the color and appeal of animated characters, and the discussion content was recorded and analyzed to obtain qualitative data. Through multiple rounds of questionnaire surveys, experts’ opinions on the classification of character prototypes were collected, and a consensus was gradually reached. Discussion and the Delphi method: for character archetype classification and animated character attractiveness. The source of the data is collected from movie websites in various regions to collect data on the most popular animated movies and count the movies that appear the most to determine which animated movies are most popular in different regions. This can help researchers understand audience preferences in different cultural contexts. Then use Adobe Photoshop to preprocess the image. First adjust the color balance to ensure that the colors of all character images are consistent and eliminate color differences caused by different shooting conditions. The second is to remove background clutter from the image to make the character image clearer and more focused. This can include cropping images, applying filters and other image processing techniques to improve image quality and consistency.


Finally, there were focus group discussions and the Delphi method. Gather expert opinions on character archetype classification through group discussions. And through multiple rounds of expert consultation, the Jungian archetype classification of the character was further determined. First, this study invited experts in related fields to form a focus group for face-to-face discussions. Invite experts in relevant fields to form focus groups for face-to-face discussions. Furthermore, in the Delphi method study, two rounds of surveys were conducted. The first round of the survey was to distribute questionnaires to experts to solicit their opinions on the classification of role prototypes. Summarize the results of the first round of surveys and feed the results back to the experts. Based on the results of the first round, a second round of questionnaires was conducted to allow experts to re-evaluate their opinions based on understanding the opinions of other experts. The above process is repeated until expert opinions converge and the Jungian archetype classification of the character is finally determined.


For the quantitative analysis part, the first is the K-means clustering algorithm, which is used for color analysis. By dividing the color data into several groups (clustering), the center point of each group (clustering center) is found. The specific step is to determine the cluster center. number (k value). Run the K-means algorithm to assign color data to the nearest cluster center. Iteratively adjust the cluster centers until convergence.


The second is descriptive statistical analysis, which is used to describe the basic characteristics of color data, such as mean, standard deviation, frequency distribution, etc. The specific steps are to calculate the mean, standard deviation and other statistics of the color data and draw frequency distribution charts and other descriptive statistical charts. The third is regression analysis: used to analyze the relationship between color data and character characteristics. The specific steps are to establish a regression model, using color data as independent variables and character characteristics as dependent variables. Estimate model parameters and test the significance of the model.


The qualitative analysis part was focus group discussion and Delphi method. Characters are prototyped through expert discussion and multiple rounds of feedback. The specific step is to organize experts to conduct focus group discussions to collect opinions on the classification of role prototypes. Use the Delphi method for multiple rounds of feedback to gradually reach consensus.


Reliability refers to the consistency and stability of a measurement tool or method in repeated measurements. The consistency of the results is checked by measuring the same object multiple times. If the results of multiple measurements are similar, it indicates higher reliability. In addition, K-fold cross-validation is used to evaluate the stability and generalization ability of the model. The specific steps include dividing the data set into K subsets (usually the K value is 5 or 10), and using K-1 subsets for training each time , the remaining subset is verified, repeated K times, selecting a different subset as the verification set each time, and finally calculating the average of the K verification results to evaluate the stability of the model.


Validity refers to whether a measurement tool or method actually measures what it is intended to measure. By inviting experts in relevant fields to review the research tools and methods, we ensure their scientificity and rationality. Specific steps include preparing research tools and methods. Describe in detail, invite experts to review these tools and methods, and make modifications and improvements based on expert feedback. In addition, peer review is used to ensure the recognition of research tools and methods in the academic community. Specific steps include submitting research designs, tools, and methods to peer review, collecting peer feedback, and making revisions and improvements based on feedback.


In the data validation part, in addition to assessing reliability, K-fold cross-validation is also used to ensure the stability and consistency of data analysis results. Bonferroni correction is used to adjust the significance level in multiple comparisons to reduce the possibility of false positive results. Specific steps include determining the number of multiple comparisons required (such as multiple statistical tests), dividing the original significance level (such as 0.05) Based on the number of comparisons, the adjusted significance level is obtained, and the adjusted significance level is used for statistical testing to ensure the reliability of the results. Through these measures, the credibility and validity of the research results can be ensured, and the scientific nature and reliability of the research conclusions can be improved.


This study acknowledges the strengths and limitations of mixed methodologies. For example, qualitative data may be subjective when interpreted, and quantitative data may be affected by factors such as sample selection bias when collected. To address these limitations, various initiatives will be taken, including using triangulation to improve the credibility of the data and ensuring the representativeness of the research results through sample diversification. Cultural and social perceptions and preferences for color are in a state of dynamic change, and the results may no longer be accurate or comprehensive over time. Subjectivity in qualitative analysis: During the qualitative analysis process, the researcher's subjective judgment will affect the interpretation of the results and bring certain biases. Selection of statistical methods: Different statistical methods may play different roles in data interpretation, so choosing an appropriate analysis method is very critical. All research methods will have their shortcomings and limitations. On this basis, we should consider other measures to supplement its limitations. Expand the sample size: Try to increase the sample size as much as possible to make the research results more representative. Interdisciplinary cooperation: unite experts in cultural anthropology, sociology, and linguistics to promote cultural understanding and improve translation accuracy. To gain insight into the long-term evolution of color choices in culture and society, we conduct ongoing tracking research. Mixed methods: Combining quantitative and qualitative research methods to address their limitations and provide a more comprehensive analysis. By thinking and responding to these limitations, the accuracy and representativeness of the research can be promoted, and more reliable guidance can be given to the selection of cross-cultural colors for animated character design. Fashion trend influence: Short-term fashion trends may affect color choices, and it is necessary to consider separating long-term cultural preferences from short-term fashion trend effects in research.


Detailed planning of statistical analysis methods


The statistical analysis stage will use descriptive statistical analysis, regression analysis and variance analysis to determine the impact of color use on the perception of the character's personality. These statistical methods can be used to quantitatively study the role of color design on cross-cultural character cognition, thereby providing empirical support for color decisions in animation creation. Analysis of the data using PYTHON software helps reveal statistically significant differences in color preferences and cultural differences. Based on the results of descriptive statistical analysis, the color preference trends of various cultural backgrounds are elaborated. Use the results of regression analysis to quantify the role of color selection in character perception. The results of analysis of variance were used to test the significance of the differences in color selection between different cultural backgrounds.


Based on the analysis results, cross-cultural suggestions are given for color selection in animated character design. Provide animators with data-driven color decision support to enhance the global appeal of character designs. Through the above detailed planning of statistical analysis methods, a systematic and comprehensive analysis of the relationship between color selection and character perception can be carried out, providing empirical support for research on cross-cultural animation character design.


Field investigation: In the early stage of data collection, this study will examine popular animation characters from different cultural backgrounds and conduct cross-cultural comparative analysis. This stage is mainly based on quantitative methods and involves the collection and screening of data. Understand the role of color choice in character perception of animated characters in different cultural backgrounds. Collect qualitative and quantitative data to support cross-cultural analysis of color preferences.


Focus group discussion: This article is based on Jung's archetype theory and conducts a qualitative analysis and classification of the archetypal frameworks of each animated movie character through focus group discussions.


Data processing: including the use of Photoshop software to adjust the color balance, and the use of Matlab software to analyze the color area. These steps all belong to the category of quantitative data processing, aiming to quantify the use of color and provide basic data for the following statistical analysis. Standardize color data by converting it into Munsell color codes for more detailed analysis and comparison.


Statistical analysis: In this quantitative analysis stage, the collected data will be statistically processed to determine patterns and relationships in the data. This process can consist of descriptive statistical analysis, regression analysis, or analysis of variance.


In order to gain a deeper understanding of the relationship between color selection and character perception, this study collected valuable first-hand information through expert interviews. The interview questions and original text can be viewed in the appendix. This study interviewed three experts with rich experience in the field of animation design. They are animation director Xu Jia, instructor Liu Wenwen of Guangzhou Academy of Fine Arts, and Jincheng, chairman of Guangdong Animation Artists Association. The interview questions were designed around color selection, character perception, cross-cultural color preferences, and future trend design, and were recorded through online interviews.


During the analysis, the following main themes were discovered:


(1) Cross-cultural differences in color selection:


Liu Wenwen pointed out: “When designing mascots for different brands or different sports games, it is necessary to combine the unique tone of the brand with the local cultural background. For example, technology brands will tend to use colors full of technological sense, while traditional cultural brands will choose It has the color of cultural heritage” (Liu Wenwen, 2024).


Jincheng emphasized: "Red not only belongs to China, but also has special significance in other countries such as Japan. Different countries' perceptions of color are profoundly affected by their respective cultural traditions and historical backgrounds." (Jincheng, 2024).


(2) The role of color in character perception:


Xu Jia pointed out: "Squinted eyes and white hair are often given specific character symbols in anime characters. Squinted eyes usually represent harmless early villains and later villains, while white hair is often associated with important roles or villains." (Xu Jia, 2024).


Liu Wenwen further explained: "The color selection of the character needs to consider the character's inner personality and external environment. For example, an optimistic and open-minded character may use bright colors, while an introverted and calm character may use soft tones." (Liu Wenwen) , 2024).


(3)Challenges of cross-cultural design:


Jincheng believes: "Selecting colors using fixed national standards may limit the ability of artistic expression. For example, Chinese elements are not limited to red, and artists should have more creative freedom." (Jincheng, 2024).


Liu Wenwen pointed out: "In the context of globalization, different countries have inconsistent perceptions of color, and it is necessary to have an in-depth understanding of their respective cultural traditions and historical backgrounds. For example, red symbolizes happiness in some cultures, while in other cultures it may represent Danger." (Liu Wenwen, 2024).


(4)Future trends and innovations:


Xu Jia mentioned: "The bright neon colors and futuristic tonality of Y2K style are widely used in animation. Its design features include high saturation contrast, digital cultural elements and future technological atmosphere." (Xu Jia, 2024) .


Jincheng added: "The color trend in future animation design will pay more attention to personalization and depth. Designers need to balance innovation and traditional cultural elements to meet diverse market needs." (Jincheng, 2024).


The findings are consistent with existing color theory, but also suggest new perspectives. For example, Jincheng and Liu Wenwen's views indicate that color design from a global perspective requires more cultural sensitivity, which is in contrast to the universal color theory in traditional literature. At the same time, the cases of Xu Jia and Liu Wenwen demonstrate how color selection is specifically applied in practice, which provides rich empirical support for theoretical research.


Through expert interviews, this study reveals the complexity of color selection in character perception and cross-cultural design. Research has found that different cultural backgrounds have unique preferences for color. Color plays a key role in shaping character personality. In the future, animation design will pay more attention to personalization and depth. These findings provide new insights into the study of color selection and character perception, and provide valuable reference for cross-cultural animation design.


Prior research and literature review


Color theory and visual communication


The function of color in visual communication is irreplaceable. It not only affects aesthetics and artistic expression, but also profoundly affects emotion, cognition and behavior. Color theory is the scientific basis for understanding and using color, while visual communication theory discusses the way colors convey information in various media and cultures. This paper will conduct an in-depth discussion of all aspects of color theory and its application in visual communication, and discuss the significance of color for animation character design based on the latest research results and actual cases.


Basic concepts of color theory


Color theory spans multiple disciplines, including physics, psychology, physiology, and art. Color is not just part of the visual experience, it can also convey emotions and information. Therefore, understanding the theoretical basis of color is crucial to animated character design. It studies the production, nature, interrelationships of colors and their role in human perception and emotions. Physical properties of color: Color is determined by the wavelength of light. The human eye perceives light of different wavelengths through cones in the retina, and then identifies various colors. RGB (red, green, blue) and CMYK (cyan, magenta, yellow, black) are two common color models. The RGB color model is used in display screens and digital image processing. It is designed based on the additive color principle, while the CMYK color model is based on the subtractive color principle for printing.


The physiological and psychological effects of color: Color is not only a visual phenomenon, but also affects people's emotions and psychological state. For example, people generally regard red as a color of enthusiasm, excitement, and warning, while blue is often associated with calmness, trust, and tranquility. Color psychology studies these effects and applies them to advertising, branding and environmental design. Cultural symbols of color - Different cultures have different symbols and emotional associations with colors. For example, white is a symbol of purity and weddings in Western culture, but in Chinese culture it is often associated with death and funerals. Understanding these cultural differences is very important for cross-cultural design and global marketing.


The visual communication function of color


The role of color in visual communication is multi-faceted, mainly in attracting attention, conveying information, strengthening emotions and aesthetic effects. Eye-catching: Bright colors and high-contrast colors can effectively attract the audience's attention. For example, characters in animations generally use bright colors to attract the attention of children. Conveying information: Color can convey complex messages and meanings. For example, red is often used in warning signs, and green indicates safety and environmental protection. Different colors in animation can be used to distinguish the identity, emotions and status of characters. Enhance emotions: Color can trigger and intensify emotional responses in your audience. Designers use appropriate colors to shape the character's personality and emotional characteristics to enhance the audience's resonance. For example, Elsa's blue and white clothes in the Disney movie "Frozen" convey a calm and mysterious feeling. Aesthetic effect: Color has great aesthetic value for both art and design. Coordinated color combinations and exquisite color contrasts can enhance the beauty of visual works and improve the artistic value. For example, the color design of Pixar animations generally has a high degree of aesthetic consistency and visual appeal.


The application of color theory in animation character design


Color theory is widely used in animation character design, which not only helps designers choose and match colors, but also guides designers how to convey the character's personality and emotions through color. Character personalization: Designers enhance the character’s personality and identity through the choice of specific colors. For example, red is often used to express brave and passionate characters, while blue is suitable for calm and intelligent characters. In the "Superman" series of novels, Superman's red cape and blue tights symbolize power and justice. Emotional expression: Color can be used to express a character’s emotional state. For example, dark and heavy colors are often used to express a character's sadness and anger, while bright and pastel colors are used to express happiness and warmth. In "Inside Out", different emotional characters use different colors (such as yellow for happiness and blue for sadness) to help the audience intuitively understand and identify the characters' emotions. Cultural Symbols: Understanding and using the cultural symbols of color can increase a character's acceptance of different cultural backgrounds. For example, in the design of animated characters for the Asian market, both red and gold can be used to match local cultural symbols and aesthetic preferences. The color red in "Mulan" not only shows Mulan's heroic appearance, but also matches the meaning of auspiciousness and celebration in Chinese culture.


Theoretical research on color and visual communication


Color and visual communication study multiple disciplines and form a rich theoretical foundation and empirical research. These studies provide scientific basis and practical guidance for designers’ designs. Color Psychology: Color psychology is the study of the role of color in human emotions and behavior. The book "Color Art" by Johannes Itten is one of the classic works on color psychology. It discusses the emotional effects and visual contrast of color. Color psychology helps designers select and match colors during the animation character design process to achieve the desired emotional effect. Visual communication theory: Visual communication theory studies how to convey information and meaning through visual elements (including color, shape, and text). The book "Visual Thinking" by Rudolf Arnheim discusses the cognitive process of visual art, thereby laying a theoretical foundation for understanding the impact of color on visual communication. The theory of visual communication in animation helps designers create characters and situations that are both visually appealing and informative. Cross-cultural visual communication - Cross-cultural visual communication is the study of the recognition and response of visual elements in different cultures. The cultural dimension theory proposed by Geert Hofstede plays an important role in cross-cultural research and helps to understand color symbolism and aesthetic preferences in different cultural backgrounds. In the context of globalization, cross-cultural visual communication theory guides designers to create animated characters with global appeal and cultural adaptability.


Color theory in action


The application of color theory to actual design involves many aspects, from character design to scene design to the entire visual style. Character design: In character design, color is used to define and distinguish the character's personality and emotions. For example, in "Frozen" Elsa's blue and white colors symbolize her ice and snow abilities and loneliness, while Anna's warm colors convey passion and vitality. Scene design: Color is used in scene design to enhance the atmosphere and guide the audience's emotions. For example, the green and gold on the grassland in "The Lion King" not only show the natural beauty, but also enhance the emotional depth and visual impact of the movie. Visual style: Whether the overall visual style is unified and harmonious is of great significance to the success of an animation work. Color theory helps designers maintain consistency in the selection and matching of colors, improving the overall beauty and visual appeal of the work. For example, Pixar animations generally have high consistency in color design and strong visual appeal, thus forming a special brand style.


Color theory and visual communication theory provide a solid theoretical foundation and practical tools for animation character design. By understanding and applying the physical properties, psychological effects, and cultural symbolism of color, designers can make more scientific and effective color choices in character design. Color can not only enhance a character's personality and emotional expression, but also improve a character's acceptance and identity in global markets through cross-cultural adaptability. Through case analysis, we can see the successful application of color theory in actual design, providing valuable experience and guidance for future animated character design. In the context of globalization, the comprehensive application of color theory will continue to promote the development and innovation of animated character design, creating more classic works with global appeal and cultural identity.


Jungian psychological archetype theory


Jungian psychological archetype theory was proposed by Swiss psychologist Carl Jung and is an important part of analytical psychology. Jung believed that there is a series of universal psychological structures in the collective unconscious of human beings. These structures are called "archetypes", which are universal and cross-cultural and run through the myths, stories and art of different cultures. Under creation. For example, Simba in The Lion King can be seen as the embodiment of the heroic archetype, symbolizing courage, adventure, and challenge.


Basic concepts of Jung’s psychological archetype theory


According to Jung's psychological archetype theory, archetypes are basic patterns that exist in the collective unconscious and symbolize common human psychological experiences and emotional reactions. These archetypes exist widely in myths, stories and artworks from different cultures and have an important influence on animation character design. For example, Simba from The Lion King can be seen as the embodiment of the heroic archetype, symbolizing courage, adventure, and challenge. Jung divided these archetypes into basic types, each with specific symbolism and emotional characteristics. Definition of archetypes: Jung defined archetypes as "the contents of the collective unconscious that are specific, organized patterns and structures that symbolize basic human psychological experiences and emotional reactions." Archetypes are universal and transcendent. Despite the limitations of time and culture, it is expressed in similar ways in the mythology, religion, literature and artistic works of different cultures. The origin of archetypes: Jung believed that archetypes come from the collective unconscious of human beings and are psychological structures formed during the process of human evolution. These archetypes are passed on genetically and exist in everyone's psyche, affecting individual behavior, thinking, and emotional responses. The symbolic meaning of archetypes: Each archetype has a specific symbolic meaning, reflecting the basic psychological needs and emotional experiences of human beings. For example, the Hero archetype symbolizes courage, adventure, and challenge, the Sage archetype symbolizes wisdom, knowledge, and guidance, and the Mother archetype symbolizes care, nourishment, and protection.


Jung proposed several important psychological archetypes, including hero, wise man, mother, shadow, self, magician, lover, etc. These archetypes manifest themselves in similar ways across cultures and personal experiences, and constitute the basic pattern of the human collective unconscious.


(2) Main types of Jungian psychological archetypes


The main types of Jungian psychological archetypes include the following important archetypes, each of which has specific symbolic meanings and emotional characteristics:


Hero: The hero archetype symbolizes courage, adventure and challenge, and represents the human spirit of pursuing goals and overcoming difficulties. Heroes usually have noble moral character and outstanding abilities, and show fearless courage and firm determination in the face of difficulties and dangers.


Wise Old Man/Woman: The Wise Old Man archetype symbolizes wisdom, knowledge and guidance, and represents the human spirit of pursuing truth and insight. Wise men are typically older and experienced figures who provide guidance and enlightenment to others with their deep wisdom and insight.


Mother: The mother archetype symbolizes care, nourishment and protection, and represents the human need and dependence on maternal love. Mothers usually appear as warm, loving and selfless figures, providing emotional support and material security.


Shadow: The shadow archetype symbolizes the dark side, fear, and unaccepted parts of the heart, and represents the inner conflicts and negative emotions of human beings. The shadow usually appears as evil, repressive and destructive images, reflecting parts of the individual's psyche that have failed to integrate.


Self: The self archetype symbolizes completeness, unity and self-realization, and represents the human spirit of pursuing self-understanding and self-realization. The self usually appears as an image of harmony, balance and transcendence, reflecting the individual's inner integration and self-transcendence.


Magician: The magician archetype symbolizes change, creation and mystery, and represents the human spirit of pursuing change and exploring the unknown. Magicians usually appear as mysterious, wise and powerful figures, with the ability to change reality and create new things.


Lover: The Lover archetype symbolizes love, beauty and sensibility, and represents the human need for intimacy and emotional connection. Lovers usually appear to be gentle, passionate and romantic, pursuing the experience of love and beauty.


(3) The role of Jungian psychological archetypes in character design


Jungian psychological archetypes play an important role in character design. By giving character archetypes symbolic meaning and emotional characteristics, designers can create characters with depth and resonance. Not only do these characters resonate with audiences, they also enhance the appeal and appeal of the story by conveying deep psychological and emotional connotations.


By giving a character specific archetypal characteristics, designers can strengthen the character's personality and identity. For example, the character of the hero archetype is given the qualities of bravery and fearlessness, allowing him to show firm determination and perseverance in the face of difficulties and challenges. Through the symbolism and emotional characteristics of the archetype, designers can better express the emotional state of the character. For example, giving a character of the shadow archetype dark and depressive qualities allows it to express inner conflicts and negative emotions, enhancing the complexity and depth of the character. Archetypes are universal and cross-cultural. Designers can enhance the identity and acceptance of characters in different cultural backgrounds by giving them archetypal characteristics. For example, giving the character of the mother archetype warmth and loving qualities makes it resonate and resonate with audiences across cultures. Through the archetypal characteristics of characters, designers can deepen the theme and connotation of the story. For example, through the role of the hero archetype, the process of overcoming difficulties and achieving goals is shown, conveying positive spirits and values, and enhancing the appeal and educational significance of the story.


(4) Specific application of prototype theory in animation character design


In animation character design, the specific applications of prototype theory include character creation, plot development and visual design. By incorporating archetype theory, designers can create characters with depth and appeal that enhance the emotional resonance and cultural adaptability of animated works. During the character creation process, designers can enhance the character's personality and emotional expression by giving the character specific archetypal characteristics. For example, giving the character of the Wise Man archetype deep wisdom and insight allows him to act as a guide and revelator in the story, helping other characters solve problems and achieve their goals. Through the archetypal characteristics of characters, designers can devise plot developments rich in drama and emotional depth. For example, through the characters of the hero prototype experiencing challenges and adventures, showing the process of overcoming difficulties and achieving goals, it enhances the tension and attraction of the story. In visual design, designers can express the character's archetypal characteristics and symbolic meaning through visual elements such as colors, shapes, and symbols. For example, by using colors such as red and gold, the power and glory of the hero archetype are expressed; by using colors such as blue and purple, the calmness and mystery of the wise man archetype are expressed.


(5)Prototype theory and cross-cultural character design


Archetype theory is of great significance in cross-cultural character design. By understanding and applying the universality and cross-cultural commonality of prototypes, designers can create characters with global appeal and cultural adaptability. This not only helps the dissemination and acceptance of animation works in the global market, but also promotes communication and understanding between different cultures through the prototype characteristics of the characters. By giving characters universal archetypal characteristics, designers can enhance the character's adaptability and identity in different cultural contexts. For example, giving the character of the mother archetype warmth and loving qualities makes it emotionally resonant and acceptable to audiences across cultures. Through the symbolic meaning and emotional characteristics of archetypes, designers can convey the values ​​and spirits of different cultures in character design. For example, through the heroic archetype, the character shows bravery and fearlessness, conveys positive values, and promotes communication and understanding between different cultures. Prototypes have cross-cultural commonality. By combining the prototype characteristics of different cultures, designers can achieve cultural integration and innovation. For example, by combining the wise man archetype in Eastern culture and the magician archetype in Western culture, a character with the characteristics of a fusion of Eastern and Western cultures is created to enhance the diversity and attractiveness of the character.


(6) Challenges and strategies of prototype theory in modern animation character design


Although Jungian psychological archetype theory provides powerful tools and methods for animation character design, designers also face some challenges in modern animation character design. These challenges are mainly reflected in the diversity of roles, cultural sensitivity and innovation. With the development of globalization, audiences have higher expectations for the diversity of animated characters. Designers need to create diverse and inclusive characters within the framework of archetype theory to meet the needs of different audiences. For example, when designing female characters, designers can break traditional gender stereotypes by combining the hero archetype and the wise man archetype to create a female image with both courage and wisdom. In cross-cultural design, designers need to consider the understanding and acceptance of prototypes by different cultures to avoid cultural misunderstandings and offense. For example, when using mother archetypes, designers need to understand the expectations and symbolic meanings of mother roles in different cultures and ensure that the character design conforms to the values ​​and aesthetic preferences of the target culture. Although prototypes are universal and cross-cultural, designers still need to innovate on the basis of prototypes to create unique and contemporary characters. For example, by combining modern technological elements with traditional archetypal features, designers can create futuristic and technological characters that meet the modern audience's need for novelty and uniqueness.


Through in-depth cultural research and interaction with target cultural communities, designers can better understand and respect the values ​​and aesthetic preferences of different cultures. This helps reflect cultural sensitivity and diversity in character design and avoid cultural misunderstandings and offense. By cooperating with experts in psychology, cultural studies, sociology and other fields, designers can obtain richer theoretical support and practical guidance. In the character design process, combining multidisciplinary knowledge and methods can improve the scientificity and innovation of character design. Through audience feedback and market testing, designers can understand how audiences in different cultural backgrounds respond to and accept a character. Adjustments and optimizations based on feedback can ensure that the character design meets the needs and expectations of the target market, improving the character's appeal and identity. When applying prototype theory, designers should use it flexibly and not stick to fixed patterns and symbolic meanings. While maintaining the basic characteristics of the prototype, combined with modern elements and innovative thinking, it is possible to create characters that have both the characteristics of the prototype and a sense of the times and uniqueness.


(7) The inspiration of prototype theory on future animation character design


Jung's psychological archetype theory provides a profound theoretical foundation and practical guidance for animation character design. By understanding and applying the symbolic meaning and emotional characteristics of archetypes, designers can create characters with depth and resonance. In future animated character design, prototype theory will continue to play an important role in promoting the innovation and development of character design.


Archetype theory helps designers understand the inner psychological structure and emotional motivation of characters, and enhances the complexity and appeal of characters by giving them deep psychological characteristics. Future character design will pay more attention to the psychological depth and emotional expression of the character, creating a more realistic and resonant character image. Cross-cultural communication and integration: Archetype theory has cross-cultural commonality. By combining the archetypal characteristics of different cultures, designers can achieve cultural exchange and integration and create characters with global appeal. In the future, animation character design will pay more attention to cross-cultural understanding and integration, and promote exchanges and cooperation between cultures. The combination of technology and art: With the development of technology, animation character design will rely more on advanced technical tools and methods. By combining prototype theory and modern technology, designers can achieve a higher level of character design and enhance the character's visual effects and emotional expression. In the future, character design will pay more attention to the combination of technology and art, and promote the development and innovation of animation art. Future animation character design will pay more attention to audience participation and interaction. Through audience feedback and market testing, designers can continuously optimize and adjust character design to meet the needs and expectations of the audience. Archetype theory provides a solid theoretical foundation for character design. By incorporating audience feedback and interaction, designers can create more attractive and identifiable characters.


Jung's psychological archetype theory provides a profound theoretical foundation and practical tools for animation character design. By understanding and applying the symbolic meaning and emotional characteristics of prototypes, designers can give characters deeper psychological and emotional connotations in character design, enhancing the character's appeal and resonance. In cross-cultural design, the universality and commonality of prototype theory help designers achieve cultural exchange and integration and create character images with global appeal. Despite the challenges of diversity, cultural sensitivity, and innovation, designers can overcome these challenges and promote innovation and development in character design through strategies such as cultural research, interdisciplinary collaboration, audience feedback, and flexible application of prototypes. In the future, Jungian psychological archetype theory will continue to play an important role in animation character design and promote the progress and prosperity of animation art.


Cross-Cultural Color Research


Color Symbolism


There are significant differences in the symbolic meaning of colors across cultures, and these differences play an important role in design and marketing. Red: In Chinese and other Asian cultures, red symbolizes good luck, joy, and prosperity and is often used at festivals, weddings, and other occasions. In many Western cultures, red symbolizes danger, passion and prohibition. For example, research shows that Chinese consumers are more likely to accept and like red packaging, while Western consumers respond more strongly to the warning meaning of red (Huang & Lu, 2015). White: In Western culture, white symbolizes purity, peace and wedding, and is the traditional color of bridal gowns. However, in many Eastern cultures, white is associated with death and funerals, symbolizing grief and mourning (Kim, 2006). Black: In Western culture, black symbolizes nobility, mystery and power, and is often used in fashion and luxury brands. In some African cultures, black symbolizes maturity and harvest, and has a positive symbolic meaning (Madden, Hewett & Roth, 2000). Green: Green symbolizes nature, life and peace in many cultures. In Islamic culture, green is regarded as a sacred color and has religious and spiritual symbolic meanings (Aslam, 2006).


psychological effects of color


The impact of color on human emotions and psychology also differs across cultures, and these differences have important reference value for the formulation of design and marketing strategies. Emotional effects of red: In Chinese culture, red can trigger positive emotional responses, such as excitement and happiness, while in Western culture, red may trigger tension and alertness (Lee, 2009). Emotional effects of blue: Blue often brings feelings of calm and comfort in Western cultures, while in some Asian cultures, blue may be viewed as a cold and sad color (Huang & Lu, 2015). Emotional effects of green: Green symbolizes nature and peace in many cultures and can bring feelings of comfort and relaxation. However, in some cultures, green may be associated with illness and death (Madden, Hewett & Roth, 2000).


Cross-cultural color adaptability


Cross-cultural color adaptability research explores how color design can be effectively applied and adapted in different cultural contexts to meet the needs and preferences of different markets. Color harmonization strategy is one of the key methods to achieve cultural harmonization and integration. By choosing colors that have positive symbolic meaning across different cultures, such as green and blue, you can build the foundation of a cross-cultural color design. For example, in Disney's animated film "Mulan", red and gold are widely used, which conforms to the symbolism and aesthetic preferences of Chinese culture, successfully achieving cultural integration and emotional resonance with the audience.


In Pixar's "Coco", orange and purple were used to represent Mexico's Day of the Dead culture, which not only enhanced the visual effects of the film, but also successfully conveyed the theme of commemoration about life and family, which was widely recognized by global audiences. Good reviews. Localized color design is an adjustment based on market needs under different cultural backgrounds. For example, when entering the Asian market, brands can use more red and gold to match local cultural symbols and aesthetic preferences. This strategy has been successfully used in "Kung Fu Panda". Through bold and distinctive tones, the film not only enhances the visual charm of the characters, but also effectively displays China's cultural characteristics and is loved by global audiences.


Cross-cultural color design needs to be based on detailed market research and audience feedback. For example, according to survey data on the North American and Asian markets, North American audiences prefer colors with high saturation and strong contrast, while Asian audiences prefer soft and warm tones. Combining this data, designers can adjust color design strategies to suit the preferences of audiences in different cultural contexts. In addition, through the analysis of audience feedback on specific animated films, such as "Kung Fu Panda" and "Coco", it can be found that successful cross-cultural color design not only enhances the visual appeal of the characters, but also effectively conveys cultural connotations and enhances the resonate with the audience’s emotions.


cross cultural marketing strategy


Color plays an important role in cross-cultural marketing. Through reasonable color strategies, brands can effectively enhance market acceptance and brand recognition. Brand color management: By studying the reactions of different cultures to brand colors, we can develop color strategies suitable for different markets. For example, Coca-Cola successfully established a strong brand image by using red, a universally appealing color, globally (Madden, Hewett & Roth, 2000). In advertising design, an effective color strategy is developed based on the color preferences and cultural symbols of the target market. For example, in advertisements targeting the Asian market, more red and gold colors are used to enhance the cultural adaptability and appeal of the advertisement (Huang & Lu, 2015).


Different cultures have significant differences in the symbolic meaning of colors, and these differences have important implications for design and marketing. For example, according to survey data on the North American and Asian markets in 2020, North American audiences prefer high saturation and strong contrast colors, while Asian audiences prefer soft and warm tones. This finding has important guiding significance for the color design of animated characters. Designers should adjust color strategies according to the preferences of the target market.


Shortcomings and research gaps in cross-cultural color research


Although existing research has provided a rich theoretical foundation and practical guidance for cross-cultural color application, there are still some research gaps and deficiencies in this field. Current research mostly focuses on static cultural symbols and lacks long-term tracking and research on the dynamic changes in the symbolic meaning of colors. Research gap: More longitudinal research is needed to explore the evolution and changing patterns of color symbolism in different cultures. For example, with the influence of globalization, some color symbols in traditional culture may change, which has an important impact on the formulation of design and marketing strategies.


Research has explored the emotional and psychological effects of color, but cross-cultural differences in these effects are still understudied. Audiences from different cultural backgrounds may have significant differences in their emotional responses to color, but current research mostly focuses on a single cultural background and lacks cross-cultural comparison and analysis. Research gap: More cross-cultural experimental research is needed to reveal the cultural differences and commonalities of color psychological effects by comparing emotional responses to color in different cultural backgrounds. For example, by conducting color emotion tests in different cultural backgrounds, we can understand the differences in the specific emotional effects of red in different cultures.


Research on cross-cultural color adaptability has provided some basic strategies, but the guidance and operability of specific applications are still insufficient. Designers and marketers need more detailed and practical guidance on how to effectively apply color strategies in different cultural contexts. More case studies and empirical analyzes are needed to explore specific application strategies and methods for cross-cultural color adaptability. For example, by analyzing the color application cases of successful brands in different markets, specific color adjustment and optimization strategies are summarized.


Most existing cross-cultural color research focuses on Western cultures and a few major markets, with relatively little research on emerging markets and cultures. With the changes in the global economy, emerging markets have become increasingly important in the global market, and it is of great significance to understand the color preferences and cultural symbols of these markets.


More color research is needed in emerging markets and cultures that explores color symbolism and psychological effects in these markets. For example, research on color culture and consumer preferences in emerging markets such as Africa, the Middle East and South America provides guidance for multinational brands. Cross-cultural color research provides a rich theoretical foundation and practical guidance for understanding and applying the differences and commonalities of color in different cultures. By summarizing the existing research results, we can see the important role of color in symbolic meaning, psychological effects, cultural adaptability and marketing strategies. However, there are still some research gaps and shortcomings in this field, including dynamic changes in color symbolic meanings, cross-cultural differences in the psychological effects of color, specific strategies for cross-cultural color adaptability, and color research in emerging markets and cultures. Future research should further explore these areas, provide more comprehensive and in-depth theoretical and practical guidance, and promote the development and application of cross-cultural color research.


Ⅱ. Color of animation character design and market characteristics


Background for animated character design


The concept and history of animated character design


In animation production, character design is a key link. It not only determines the appearance and uniqueness of the character, but also directly determines the audience's love and recognition of it. As the animation industry progresses with the times, character design has gradually emerged and has developed into a knowledge that integrates many academic fields such as art, psychology and cultural studies.


Animation character design concept


First of all, we must understand the concept of character design in animation: Animation character design involves the entire process of building visual impressions and forming unique personalities for different characters in animation. This process covers many design considerations from the character's appearance to actions, as well as facial expressions, clothing and color matching. The design intention of characters in animation is to create characters with unique characteristics and high visual perception, so that the audience can quickly identify these characters and remember them in their hearts.


Appearance design forms the core of character design, covering the character's physical appearance, facial features, and overall form. As a designer, you must carefully consider variables such as a character's age, gender, race, or biological species to ensure that the character's appearance is consistent with his or her cultural background. Action design involves the character's standing posture, walking method and the details of various actions. These suggestions help shape the character's personality and ensure that they appear more vivid and realistic in the dynamic animation. In character design, expression plays a key role. With full facial expressions, the character can effectively convey its deep emotions and spiritual dynamics. Designers must have a deep understanding of the laws of facial muscle activity and expression changes. Costume creation not only presents the character's attributes and background, but also helps to enhance the character's visual appeal and uniqueness. Designers need to fully consider various elements and influences such as the style, color tone, and selected materials of the clothing when designing. Color matching scheme design In the field of character design, color matching elements play a vital role. The combination of different colors can convey unique emotions and feeling atmosphere. When designers choose colors, they must combine the characteristics of the characters and the needs of the storyline to select the most matching hue.


The design and development process of animation characters


The character design process in animation is deeply connected to the continued advancement of technology. From the initial black and white animation to contemporary 3D animation, this change has become a witness to the continuous development and innovation of character design. During the period from the 1900s to the 1930s, early animation character play design, early animation character design concepts originated from black and white cartoons in the early 1900s. The animation at that time mainly showed concise outlines and single tones. The character designs were very simple and the images were monotonous. Iconic film work: "Fantasmagorie" (Fantasmagorie) created by French animation master Émile Cohl in 1908 is generally considered to be one of the earliest animated films. The film's character construction is distinguished by clean outlines and exaggerated movements.


In the 1920s, the Walt Disney Company was founded, marking the beginning of a new era in animated films. Disney has incorporated creative thinking into character creation. They use detailed depictions and multiple emotional expressions to make the characters more vivid and uniquely charming. Representative work: In 1928, Disney launched the first animated short film "Steamboat Willie" with sound effects. The Mickey Mouse character in this short film is hailed as a classic chapter in the history of animation. Color animation was at its peak between the 1930s and 1950s.


In the 1930s, due to the advancement of color film technology, the design of animated characters also developed accordingly. The character construction is not only more sophisticated in character image and action design, it also incorporates colorful elements, thereby enhancing its visual appeal and emotional presentation. Representative creation: In 1937, Disney released its first color cartoon called "Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs". The characters in this movie are exquisitely designed, bright in color, and Setting a new benchmark in color animation.


Extending from the 1940s to the 1950s, this period is generally regarded as the "golden age" of the animation industry. In this era, many animated classic characters came into being, such as Bugs Bunny and Daffy Duck from Warner Bros., and Tom and Jerry from MGM, Bugs Bunny and Daffy Duck respectively. The characters are unique in their appearance and use a variety of expressions and poses to illustrate their personalities and appeal. From the 1960s to the 1980s, animation technology experienced revolutionary changes and diversified development.


In the 1960s, due to the popularity of television, a large number of television animation contents were produced, making the character designs of animations more colorful. Although TV animation is relatively inexpensive to produce, its designs tend to be simple and diverse. Iconic works include: In 1960, The Flintstones, produced by Hanna-Barbera, was selected as the first animated television show to air during the prime era. The character structure of the work is simple, but also incorporates the characteristics of the times.


In the 1970s, Japan's animation industry (Anime) gradually developed and established its unique artistic style and design direction. Japanese animation image design often combines large pupils, exaggerated emotional expressions and complex costume design elements, which all highlight the emotional presentation and unique personality of the characters. His iconic work: "Mobile Suit Gundam" created by Yoshiyuki Tomino in 1979, Tomino played by Yoshiyuki Tomino, laid the foundation for Japanese robot animation and had a wide-ranging and far-reaching influence due to its character design.


In the 1990s, advances in computer graphics promoted the emergence of 3D animation technology, which ushered in a period of innovation in character conception. Character design in 3D animation not only makes the picture more three-dimensional and realistic, but also can present more complex and complex body movements and facial expressions. Representative works: In 1995, Pixar successfully released its first comprehensive 3D animated film called "Toy Story" (Toy Story). This work is particularly superb in character creation and the animation effects are extremely realistic, opening a new chapter in the field of 3D animation.


With the advent of the 21st century, the globalization of the animation industry has become increasingly strong, and various cross-cultural animation works continue to emerge. Character design incorporates elements from multiple cultures, resulting in a variety of styles that blend deeply with each other. His iconic works include: the movie "Zootopia" released by Disney in 2016. This work presents the blending and coexistence of races and cultures through the creation of diverse animal characters.


Discuss the evolution direction of animated character design


With the rapid advancement of VR technology and AR technology, the design of animated characters is gradually being practiced in more scenes. Designers need to master numerous technical strategies to create more vivid and immersive character looks. In future animated character design, more emphasis will be placed on personalization and customization to meet the diverse needs of audiences. Designers have the ability to use big data technology and artificial intelligence methods to deeply analyze audience preferences and propose unique role-playing designs accordingly. In today's context of global economic integration, character design in animation is continuing to develop in a cross-cultural and diversified direction. Designers should develop a deep understanding of the colors, logos, and values ​​of various cultures to create characters that transcend cultural boundaries and thereby enhance emotional resonance for international audiences. In the future, the creation of animated characters will focus more on durability. Designers must consider the coherence and scalability of characters on various media platforms to ensure that the characters are always attractive and unified in the long term.


Animated character design, as a key part of the entire animation production process, has gone through a stage of development from monotonous black and white lines to rich and diverse 3D image design. In various periods of history, technological developments and cultural transformations have had an immeasurable impact on the design of characters. If we can have a deep understanding of the concept and historical background of character design, we will help deepen our understanding of the nature and future directions of animated character design, thereby providing a solid theoretical foundation and guidelines for future animation production practices.


Looking to the future, with the continued development of technology and cultural integration, our animated character design is expected to encounter more innovative elements and tests. Designers must not only inherit their traditions, but also integrate modern technology and cross-cultural factors to create animated characters that are contemporary and globally attractive, thereby promoting the continued prosperity and progress of the animation industry.


Color classification of animated characters


In the character design process of animation, the use of color forms a key component of visual transmission and emotional presentation. Color not only provides a striking personality and visual impression to the characters, but also plays a decisive role in the emotional resonance and cultural resonance of the audience. In a cross-cultural context, there can be huge differences in the symbolic meanings represented by colors and their interpretations, which makes the process of classifying and selecting colors for animated characters particularly complex and critical.


The academic basis behind the classification of animated character tones


The theory of color includes its physical properties, visual perception, and psychological effects. Next, we will introduce several core parts in color theory in detail: About hue (Hue): Hue describes some basic characteristics of color, such as red, blue, yellow, etc., which are the core of color classification. Value refers to the brightness and depth value of a color, which directly affects the brightness value and depth of the color. Saturation: Saturation is defined as the purity or vividness of a color, which together determine the intensity and concentration of the color.


Color psychology explores how colors affect human emotions and behavior. Different colors have the potential to trigger different emotional responses, and these responses may manifest themselves differently in various cultural contexts. Here is a list of common colors and their psychological impact: Red: Not only does it often symbolize passion, strength and potential danger, but it also symbolizes good luck and various holiday celebrations in Chinese culture. Blue not only represents tranquility, trust and wisdom, but in some cultures it can also be associated with sadness. Green connotes the power of nature, health and growth, but in some cultures it can also suggest feelings of jealousy. Yellow: It represents joy, vitality and alertness, but in some cultural concepts it may represent weakness.


Jung's psychological archetype theory classifies people's psychological traits into several different types, such as heroes, shadows, wise men, children, etc., and each type carries unique symbolic meanings and emotional attributes. These prototypes play a key role in the creation of animated characters. They use different colors to show the unique characteristics of the prototypes, thereby deepening the emotional depth of the characters and enhancing the emotional resonance of the audience.


Classification techniques for animation character colors


Hue forms the cornerstone of color classification, and different hues can bring a variety of personalities and emotional experiences to characters. Listed below are some common classification methods based on hue: About red characters: This mainly describes characters who are passionate, brave and fight fiercely, such as superheroes and villains. Characters from the blue series are often used to represent calm, wise and mysterious figures, such as a combination of wisdom and evil. Characters from the green series are often used to illustrate the natural environment, the peace process, and the potential for growth, such as forest spirits and environmentalists. Yellow characters: This type is often used for characters that express joy, energy, and alertness, such as children and comic characters. Changes in the brightness and saturation of a color can have an impact on its emotional and visual impact. Classification based on lightness and saturation: Characters with high lightness and saturation: Their colors are bright and vivid, and are often used to depict animated, positive and childish characters. Low light and high saturation character descriptions: These characters present bright, profound colors and are often used to depict characters full of mystery, multiplicity, and strong qualities. Differences in lightness and saturation of characters: They usually display a soft, pastel tone, which is intended to present a gentle, tranquil and neutral personality. For the characters, it is characterized by slightly darker and more sedate colors, which are often described as depicting sadness, introversion, and brooding situations.


Classification based on emotional and psychological effects


The emotional and psychological impact of color has become a key guiding factor in the production of animated characters. The following is a classification of different levels based on emotional factors and psychological reactions: Passion and activity: Red, orange and yellow are often used to depict passionate and energetic scenes, especially suitable for heroes, children or comedy. Role. Calmness and intelligence: Blue, green, and purple are often chosen to show calmness and intelligence, and are particularly suitable for describing wise people, villains, and mysterious participants. Nature and growth: Green and brown are often used to describe nature and evolutionary processes, and are ideal for showcasing forest elves, environmental advocates, and participants in growth. Blue and gray are often used to express sadness and introverted emotions, which are more suitable for shadowy or sad characters.


In a cross-cultural context, the classification of animation character colors and cultural heritage have an impact on the meaning of color symbols. The symbolic meaning of colors may be significantly different in different cultural environments. Listed below are the symbolic meanings of colors in specific cultural contexts: Regarding traditional Eastern cultures, such as China and France: Red: represents good luck, various festivals, and power and status. White represents purity and death. Black: is a color that symbolizes power and mystery. Green represents the image of nature and harmony. Elements from Western culture (such as Europe and the United States): red represents passion, risk and a symbol of love. White: It symbolizes purity and wedding. The color black symbolizes death and evil. Green: represents nature and jealousy. Similarities and differences in color perception across cultures


In different cultural backgrounds, audiences may have different feelings and preferences for colors. Here are some of the results of research on cross-cultural color perception: Color preferences: Audiences may have different preferences across diverse cultural backgrounds. In Eastern culture, red has been widely recognized and loved, but in some Western cultures, red is often considered an overly intense color. Regarding color matching: Various cultural backgrounds have different acceptance and aesthetic standards for these color combinations. For example, in Eastern cultures, the combination of red and gold often represents power and good luck, but in Western cultures, the combination of red and green is more common. Emotional color response: Under different cultural contexts, viewers may have different emotional experiences with the same color. For example, in Eastern cultural backgrounds, blue is generally considered a positive and peaceful color, whereas in some Western cultures, the choice of blue may be associated with a feeling of melancholy and sadness.


Case analysis: cross-cultural animation character color creation


With the help of detailed case studies, we can gain a deeper understanding of the operation method of animated character color design in different cultural backgrounds. Mulan represents "Mulan": In terms of color design: Disney's work "Mulan" successfully blends the red, golden and black tones of Eastern culture to highlight Mulan's courage, intelligence and profound cultural background. In terms of cultural matching: The film not only fully respects the symbolic meaning of Chinese classical culture in its color selection, but also increases the visual appeal and emotional resonance of the characters through diverse tonal combinations.


“Coco”: In Pixar’s book “Coco,” he used colorful color choices, especially orange tones and blues, which showcased the cultural connotations of Mexico’s Day of the Dead. Cultural Adaptability: This film uses the art of color to show the audience the deep passion and historical customs of Mexican culture, thus winning a lot of resonance and recognition around the world. "Spirited Away" expressed it this way: In terms of the use of color: Hayao Miyazaki's work "Spirited Away" successfully reveals the inner meaning of Japanese culture through the use of soft tones and natural color combinations. That kind of admiration and mystery of nature. From a cultural adaptation perspective: The film cleverly uses color to depict the emotions and evolution of the characters, incorporating Japanese cultural aesthetics and attracting audiences around the world.


Cross-cultural color design techniques using psychological prototype theory


The first to integrate mental models with color selection, psychological archetype theory gives character color designs deep symbolic and emotional qualities. By combining the characteristics of various archetypes for color screening, we can improve the emotional and cultural fit of the character.


Title of Hero: Common colors include: red, blue and gold. The color represents courage, strength and justice. When adapting to the cultural environment, the characters played by the heroes can be adjusted in color according to the symbolic meaning of the region where they are located.


Shadow means: Commonly used options for various colors include: black, dark blue, and purple. The representative of color: dark black full of mystery, high complexity and subconsciousness. In Western cultures, black is often associated with death or evil, but in Eastern cultures, it may represent elements of strength and mystery.


Wiseman: Commonly used colors include: grey, white and blue. The color represents knowledge, reason and peace. In the contrast of cultural backgrounds, the colors displayed by wise figures can show the iconic colors of knowledge, such as blue in the West and white in the East.


Children: The commonly chosen colors are: yellow, pink and light blue. The color symbolizes: innocence, hope, innocence. For children's characters, global colors are often bright and inclusive, but we also need to make subtle adjustments based on different cultural backgrounds.


Trickster, organizer of burlesque events: Frequently chosen colors include orange, purple and a variety of colorful contrasting colors. Color as symbol: representing different aspects of humor, chaos and knowledge. Adapt to different cultures: The color design of funny characters should be flexible and incorporate humorous elements from different cultural backgrounds into the design to achieve strong contrast.


About your Self: Frequently used colors include: neutral colors and coordinated colors. Colors signify wholeness, harmony, and personal fulfillment. Cultural adaptation: The color chosen for your character should be balanced and unified, while also meeting the aesthetic standards of different cultural backgrounds.


In-depth research on the color difference matrix (CIEDE2000): by measuring the differences in color differences between characters, we can evaluate the visual deviation of color and its cultural adaptability. Designers can use the color difference matrix to explore the visual differences in the color of characters in various cultural environments, which can ensure that the characters are highly recognizable and popular among global audiences. Conducted HSV hue analysis and research: subdividing colors into hue (Hue), saturation (Saturation) and brightness (Value) to conduct a comprehensive exploration of their color characteristics. By using the spatial pattern of HSV colors, designers can adjust the color, saturation and brightness of the character to optimize the color combination and ensure that the character has unique visual appeal and emotional resonance in multiple cultural backgrounds.


Before designing a character's colors, designers should conduct in-depth cultural education and background research to explore how the target culture symbolizes colors and generates emotional responses. In order to collect the audience's preferences and perceptions of character colors in different cultural and traditional backgrounds, we used questionnaires and interviews. When shaping the color of a character, you need to find a balance between colors, both to make the combination of tones appear harmonious and to ensure that the visual effect is enhanced by contrast. By using the color difference matrix and HSV color space map, the color combination is further adjusted to ensure that the characters present a consistent visual experience in various cultural environments. In order to ensure the design effect of the character, we should conduct color tests multiple times and collect feedback from the audience, and then make appropriate adjustments and optimization choices to the colors. Based on audience feedback, we continuously improve the color matching of the characters to ensure that the final effect can meet the expectations of cross-cultural audiences.


The future development direction of animated character color classification


The first is innovation driven by technology. With the continuous advancement of innovative technologies such as virtual reality (VR), augmented reality (AR), and artificial intelligence (AI), the color design of characters in animation heralds new breakthroughs and innovations. Virtual reality and adaptive technology will provide a new visual expression for the design of character colors, thereby making character colors more vivid and interactive in virtual reality. Designers need to have an in-depth understanding and mastery of VR/AR technology to produce character visual effects rich in in-depth experience and interactive elements. Through AI technology, designers can get necessary data assistance and perfect suggestions when analyzing and selecting colors. When designers use AI algorithms to study audiences’ color preferences and emotional experiences, they can make more precise color choices and design personalized content.


In the future, the color design of animated characters will pay more attention to uniqueness and personalized characteristics to better meet the diverse tastes of the audience. Big data is used to conduct in-depth discussions on the audience's viewing styles and color preferences, thereby presenting more personalized character color suggestions to the audience. Design experts can adjust the character's tone based on real-time feedback provided by the audience to increase audience engagement and satisfaction. Designers have the ability to tailor character color strategies to specific readers or markets to meet different cultural environments and aesthetic requirements. Use customized design strategies to enhance the character's sense of belonging in a special cultural background and market competitiveness. Against the background of global integration, the color design of animated characters is expected to continue to develop towards cross-cultural and diversity trends. It is necessary for designers to have a deep understanding of the symbolic meanings and emotional responses represented by colors in various cultures in order to design specific character colors that can break through cultural differences. Incorporating various colors and cultural elements can enhance the character's appeal and acceptance in international settings. Designers should try various color presentation methods and integrate color factors from different cultural backgrounds to create characters with profound cultural heritage and artistic value. Through multiple color schemes, we showcase the rich diversity and inclusive attitudes of our global audience.


In all stages of animation design, how to classify the color of the character is a crucial part. In addition to affecting the character's visual performance and emotional communication, it is also related to the character's acceptance and preference among international audiences. This study systematically explores the classification methods of animated character colors by integrating color theory, color psychology, and Jung's psychological archetype theory, and analyzes differences in color perception and coping strategies from multi-cultural backgrounds.


In the future, with the increasing advancement of technology and the integration of multiculturalism, the color design of animated characters will usher in more diversified innovations and tests. When inheriting traditional concepts, designers must integrate modern technology and cultural integration to create animated characters that are both contemporary and globally attractive to promote the stable progress and prosperity of the animation industry. In order to select and apply colors more scientifically and orderly in character design, designers need to deeply grasp and apply these research findings to enhance the overall quality of the design and improve the audience's recognition and acceptance.


Characteristics of animated character colors


In the creation of animated characters, color is not only a part of the visual composition, it also carries and embodies the character's deep emotions, personality traits and cultural heritage. Through different color combinations and combinations, we can convey rich emotional connotations and help the audience better comprehend and understand the meaning of the characters. This article combines the main research content with an in-depth analysis of the color vision characteristics of characters in animation, and further explores their practical application in the field of character design and their profound impact on the audience's mentality.


Affectionate depiction of color


In the field of psychology, colors have special psychological connections, and different hues can trigger a variety of different emotional responses. These emotional reactions not only exist widely in various cultural backgrounds, but also show some cross-cultural commonalities. Red: As a symbol of passion, power and risk, it is often used to depict intense emotions and tense atmospheres. For example, the red superhero clothes show the qualities of fearlessness and fighting spirit. Blue: It symbolizes peace, mutual trust and wisdom, and is especially suitable for figures who represent calmness and rationality, such as wise people and scientific researchers. Green: represents nature, physical health and continued growth. It is an element suitable for depicting ecological harmony and vitality, such as forest guardians or those who advocate environmental protection. Yellow: Represents joy, energy and warning, and is often used to play energetic and positive characters, such as children or funny figures.


The depth and saturation of emotion are closely related to the brightness of color


A character's emotional expression is not only affected by hue, but also by the clarity and saturation of the color. High value, rich saturation: Bright and bright colors often display positive and energetic emotions, such as joy and excitement, and this color is especially suitable for characters who are full of energy and optimism. In terms of low lightness and high saturation, the intensity and depth of color can present intense and complex emotions, such as anger and mystery, which is particularly suitable for describing the multiple elements of inner emotions. At higher levels of brightness, saturation is lower: soft colors represent tranquility and gentle feelings, and are ideal as an expression of harmony and neutrality. When a color appears darker, it often takes on a brooding and sad atmosphere, which is particularly useful when describing pain in the heart and deep contemplation.


Characteristics of culture symbolized in colors


In different cultural backgrounds, colors carry unique imagery. When designing characters in animation, designers must consider the cultural background of the target group and choose colors that reflect their cultural significance. Regarding Eastern cultural perspectives: Red: In traditional Chinese culture, red represents luck, festivals and power. It is often used as a symbol of joy and authority. White: This color represents purity and passing, and is often used to describe sacred or sad images. Green: represents the symbol of nature and peace, and is suitable as one of the harmonious characters closely related to it. Western cultural tradition: Red: It represents passion, risk and love, and is mainly used to convey intense emotions and tense relationships. Blue represents trust and wisdom, and is especially suitable for playing a calm and rational position. Black: This is a word that symbolizes death and evil, often used to describe bad guys or mysterious figures.


When producing cross-cultural animated content, color must not only carry symbolic meaning, but also take into account local cultural traditions and the audience's aesthetic preferences. For festivals and celebrations: Commonly used colors bring new creativity to the creation of characters during festivals and ceremonies. For example, India’s festival culture is rich and colorful, which provides a useful reference for the character’s costume design. When it comes to the theme of traditional clothing, clothing color combinations from different cultural backgrounds can provide a useful reference for character shaping, thereby strengthening the character's cultural acceptance and resonating with the audience.


Psychological qualities contained in colors


The first Jung is a psychological archetype, which is related to color. Jung's psychological archetype theory provides a reference frame for symbolic and emotional characteristics for character color design. By choosing the colors of different archetypes, it helps to deepen the character's understanding of the character. Emotional and cultural adaptability.


By incorporating various cultural contexts, we color-adjusted the archetypal character in the psychological context to increase the character's cross-cultural appeal and emotional resonance with the audience. Heroes: In Eastern cultural traditions, heroes can use red and gold colors more frequently in their roles, which reflects their authority and power; in Western culture, blue and red are used to symbolize justice and courage. In the Eastern cultural tradition, the image of shadow has the choice of black or dark purple, which conveys a mysterious and powerful artistic conception; in the Western cultural circle, black and dark blue are often more likely to show its evil and complex nature. The role of a wise man: In the concept of Eastern culture, the image of a wise man can use the combination of white and gray to express wisdom and calmness; in the Western cultural background, blue and gray seem to be more able to show calm wisdom and logical thinking. .


Recognition characteristics of color in vision


Color contrast is seen as a key way to enhance a character's visual perception. With the help of bright color combinations, characters can stand out among numerous backgrounds, thereby deepening the audience's memory and enhancing their recognition. Through high-contrast color matching - such as the combination of red and green, blue and orange, the character can be made more prominent visually. Under various plots and backgrounds, designers can timely adjust the color balance of characters according to the emotional changes of the audience and the progress of the story to meet the changes in the plot.


When making animation, ensuring that the character's tone is consistent is a decisive factor in ensuring a smooth character image and enhancing the audience's sense of identity. Regarding color consistency: In order to improve character recognition and emotional continuity, characters should have unified and coordinated colors in various environments and plots. When we talk about the rationality of color change, in certain specific situations, the color tone of the character should be both appropriate and logical, especially when emotions change or roles change, how to make appropriate adjustments to the color.


The color characteristics of characters in animation are not only reflected in visual presentation and emotional communication, but are also deeply driven and shaped by cultural background and psychological models. By deepening their understanding of the emotional, cultural, affective, psychological and visual characteristics of color, designers have the ability to select colors more systematically and scientifically in the character creation process, thereby producing animations with strong appeal and emotional resonance. Role.


In an environment facing multi-cultural backgrounds, color design needs to balance the symbolic meaning of culture and the emotional experience of the audience to ensure that the characters can be universally accepted and liked all over the world. It is expected that in the future, with the continued development of technology and the in-depth integration of cultures, the color design of animated characters will face a series of innovations and tests. In order to ensure the lasting prosperity and progress of the animation industry, designers must not only continue to explore and innovate technology, but also combine it with modern technology and various cultural elements to create animated characters with modern characteristics and global appeal. .


Animation character color composition


For animated characters, the construction of color is not just about which color to choose, but also involves the core characteristics of the color, its constituent elements, and its impact on visual performance.


Basic properties of color


The most basic properties of color are hue, lightness and saturation, which together determine the visual characteristics of color. Hue: Hue is the most basic classification of colors, such as red, blue, and green. Each hue has certain emotional associations and cultural symbolism. For example, red is generally associated with passion, power, and danger, while blue is often associated with calmness, intelligence, and trust. When designing animated characters, choosing different hues can help convey the character's personality and emotional state. Lightness: Lightness describes the contrast between light and dark of a color. High-value colors usually appear light and soft, while low-value colors appear deep and serious. By adjusting the brightness of the character's color, it can affect the character's visual performance and emotional atmosphere in various situations. Saturation: Saturation refers to the purity or vividness of a color. Highly saturated colors appear vivid and intense, while low-saturation colors appear soft and calm. The color saturation of animated characters has a significant impact on the audience's emotional response and attention concentration.


components of color


The color components of animated character design include main colors, auxiliary colors and embellishment colors. These factors together form the overall color image of the character. Dominant Color: The dominant color occupies the largest area in character design, and it lays the foundation for the character's visual image. The main color is generally used on the character's clothing, skin or main accessories. It determines the character's most fundamental emotions and personality. Secondary Colors are colors that are coordinated with the main tone and are designed to enrich the color depth and detail of the character. The auxiliary color selection needs to be coordinated with the main color to improve the visual appeal and completeness of the character. Accent Colors: This color is mainly used to highlight and highlight certain details. Although its area is usually small, it has a significant impact on people's visual experience. The use of decorative colors can guide the audience's vision and highlight the important characteristics and personality of the characters.


Visual performance


In the visual presentation of animated characters, color is not only about how to select and combine colors, but also involves the application methods of colors and the effects they produce. Color Contrast: Color contrast describes the contrast between various colors. Characters can be made more clear and eye-catching by using high-contrast colors; and lower-contrast colors can create a coordinated, even visual effect. The color contrast between characters, background, and other characters in animation can enhance visual hierarchy and focus. Color Harmony: Color harmony, that is, the coordinated relationship between various colors. Coordinated color combinations create visual pleasure and consistency. The color harmony of animated characters needs to take into account the overall visual effect and the character's adaptability to various scenes. Emotional Expression of Color: Color plays a significant role in conveying emotions. Red conveys passion and tension, blue conveys calmness and wisdom, and green conveys nature and peace. Through the emotional expression of colors, animated characters can well convey their inner emotions and personality traits. Cultural Symbolism of Color: Colors have their own unique symbolic meanings in different cultural backgrounds. When designing animated characters for a global audience, different cultures’ understanding of color and emotional responses need to be taken into consideration. For example, white in Western culture is a symbol of purity and wedding, while white in Eastern culture may be related to death, funerals, etc.


The color composition of animated characters involves the fundamental nature of color, its constituent elements, and visual expression. Through the scientific selection and matching of colors, designers can create visually harmonious and emotional animated characters. This is not only conducive to character creation and emotional expression, but also improves the character's acceptance and recognition of different cultural backgrounds. The understanding and application of the symbolic meaning of color culture in the context of globalization is the key to the success or failure of animated character design.


Animation Character Psychology and Culture


The application of color in animated character design not only involves aesthetics and visual communication, but is also deeply influenced by psychology and cultural background. Color psychology reveals the impact of color on human emotions and behavior, while cultural context determines the symbolic meaning and emotional associations of different colors in different societies.


The application of color psychology in character design


Color psychology studies the impact of color on human emotions and behavior, revealing the emotional responses and psychological effects that different colors can trigger. In animated character design, the application of color psychology is mainly reflected in the following aspects: Emotional expression: different colors can convey different emotions. For example, red conveys passion, energy and tension, and is suitable for showing brave heroic characters or fierce battle scenes; blue conveys calmness, trust and wisdom, and is suitable for showing calm wise men or quiet environments; yellow conveys happiness and vitality and warnings, which apply to episodes that show lively child characters or alertness. Characterization: Color can help shape a character’s personality. For example, using green can express the character's natural harmony, health, and peace; using black can express the character's mystery, power, and complexity. Through color selection, designers can enhance the character's personality and make it more vivid and three-dimensional. Attention Directing: Color can direct the audience’s attention, highlighting key features and important details of a character. For example, using bright colors can attract the audience's attention and make the characters more prominent in the picture; using contrasting colors can enhance the visual layering of the characters and make them stand out against a complex background. Psychological association: Different colors can stimulate the audience’s psychological association and emotional resonance. For example, red might remind viewers of fire and passion, and blue might remind viewers of sky and ocean. By tapping into these mental associations, designers can enhance a character's emotional appeal and visual expressiveness.


The influence of cultural background on color choice


Different cultural backgrounds have different symbolic meanings and emotional associations with colors, and the choice of color is particularly important in cross-cultural animation character design. Designers need to understand the color symbolism of the target culture to ensure the character's acceptance and identity in different cultural contexts. Cultural Symbolism of Colors: Colors have different symbolic meanings in different cultures. For example, in Western cultures, white symbolizes purity, weddings, and rebirth; in Eastern cultures, white may symbolize death and funerals. Therefore, designers need to consider the color symbolism of the target culture when choosing character colors to avoid misunderstandings and cultural conflicts. Cultural and emotional associations: Color can trigger emotional associations among audiences in different cultural backgrounds. For example, red symbolizes good luck, joy, and power in Chinese culture and is often used in festivals and ceremonies; while in Western culture, red symbolizes love, danger, and passion. Therefore, designers need to make use of the emotional associations of different colors in the target culture in cross-cultural design to enhance the cultural adaptability and emotional resonance of the characters. Cross-cultural color coordination: In cross-cultural animation works, color coordination is an important means to enhance the visual appeal of characters and cultural integration. Designers need to find color combinations that can produce positive meanings in different cultures to achieve cultural harmony and emotional integration of colors. For example, blue and green have positive symbolic meanings in many cultures and can serve as the basis for cross-cultural color designs. Case study: Specific animation works can provide successful examples of cross-cultural color design. For example, Disney's "Mulan" combines the color symbols of Chinese culture in the character design, using red and gold to show Mulan's bravery and glory; Pixar's "Coco" uses rich colors to express the undead in Mexico Festival culture enhances the cultural identity of the characters and the emotional resonance of the audience.


The application of color psychology and cultural background in animation character design has an important impact on the character's emotional expression, personality portrayal and cultural adaptability. By scientifically utilizing the principles of color psychology and cultural symbolism, designers can create animated characters with strong emotional appeal and cultural identity. In the context of globalization, understanding and applying the color symbolism and emotional associations of different cultures is crucial to the success of cross-cultural animated character design.


Animated character usage range


Animation character design color not only has a decisive impact on aesthetics and emotional expression, but its application range is extremely wide, involving many fields such as movies, television, games, and advertising. Different fields have different requirements and effects for color. Let’s briefly analyze how the color of animated characters is specifically used in these aspects and the role it plays.


Animated character colors in movies


In film, color is regarded as a vital means of expression in telling stories and shaping characters. Films use color to express emotion, create situations, and emphasize thematic values. Emotional transmission: The color of characters in animation plays an important role in the movie and can profoundly affect the audience's emotional feedback. For example, in the DreamWorks animated feature "How to Train Your Dragon," the characters use bright and saturated colors to convey their sense of positivity, courage, and daring adventure. In "Frozen", Disney further emphasized the character's loneliness and mystery through cold colors of blue and white. Film environment design: using color to build special atmosphere and scenes in the film. As an example, the application of warm colors helps to create a warm and cozy environment, while at the same time, cool colors are used to create a feeling of tension and mystery. "Coco" shows the enthusiasm and celebration of Mexico's Day of the Dead through colorful warm tones and abundant energy. Emphasis of the theme: The use of color can more effectively solidify the core ideas and messages of the film. For example, in the Pixar movie "Inside Out", various emotional characters use unique colors (for example, happy represents yellow, sad represents blue) to help the audience more easily understand and identify what the character symbolizes. Feelings.


Animated Character Colors in TV Shows


The color of animated characters in TV shows focuses on easy recognition and strong appeal, aiming to attract the audience in a very short time and leave an unforgettable impact. Ease of recognition: TV animations often have bright colors and simple and lively character construction, allowing the audience to more quickly identify and remember the characters they play. For example, the characters in "SpongeBob SquarePants" use saturated tones, which can attract the audience's attention in a shorter period of time. Charm: A variety of colorful characters have the ability to captivate audiences of all ages, especially children. For example, the character design of "Peppa Pig" combines simple lines and bright colors, making the overall visual experience more attractive.


Animated character colors in the game


In games, color is not only a visual display, it also directly determines the player's playing experience and the fun of the game. The feel of the game: Color tone helps enhance immersion in the game and the experience of the game. In the role-playing video game "The Legend of Zelda", the green costume worn by the protagonist Link not only makes it easier for players to identify, but also makes the nature and adventure themes of the game more consistent, thereby enhancing the immersion of the game. Regarding interactivity: In the color layout of the game, we must fully consider the interaction between the characters and the background. For example, in a multiplayer interactive game environment like Overwatch, characters and skills are color-coded differently so that players can quickly identify and react when quickly advancing and fighting. Visual feedback: By using color as a means of visual feedback, players can have a deeper understanding of the game's mechanics and current status. For example, red is often used to describe danger or enemy forces, while green is used to mark safety or allies. Through this visual signal, players can more clearly grasp various details of the game.


Animated character colors in advertising


Anime characters in advertisements are mainly designed to promote the brand and attract customers' attention. Brand Identity: In order to strengthen and enhance the brand image and public perception, the color design of the animated characters should be coordinated with the tone strategy adopted by the brand. For example, McDonald's uses a two-toned design of red and yellow for its mascot "Uncle Clown", thereby enhancing the brand's brand recognition and its proximity to customers. Attract the audience: The colors of the cartoon characters in the advertisement should be attractive and can quickly arouse the interest of consumers. For example, mascots and characters in advertisements generally use bright colors and strong contrasting tones to give the audience a shocking visual experience. Emotional resonance: The use of color can also inspire readers to have an emotional connection with it. For example, using soft and warm colors can make consumers feel more comfortable and trustworthy, further enhancing the attractiveness of advertising. Character colors in animation are widely used in many fields such as movies, TV, games, and advertising, and the visual effects they bring will vary according to their respective fields. In film works, color plays a role in conveying emotions, setting the atmosphere and emphasizing core themes; in TV programs, color is focused on ease of identification and attractiveness; in the game process, color not only affects the player's own Experience is also closely connected with game interaction; in advertising, colors are used to promote the brand and attract customers' attention.


Characteristics of animated character marketing


In the field of animation, character creation not only demonstrates art and innovative thinking, but also becomes a core part of marketing. Character color design plays a key role in meeting consumer needs, satisfying audience color preferences and shaping brand image. This article mainly provides an in-depth study of color strategies involved in the marketing of animated characters from professional skills, academic research and economic perspectives.


Market demand


In animated character design, the choice of color tone is determined by market demand. Understanding market needs requires not only understanding the preferences of various audience groups regarding color, cultural background, and current market dynamics, but also including in-depth insights into audience groups at all levels. In-depth market research and interpretation are key to understanding audience preferences and their color tendencies. Designers can learn about audience preferences for various colors by conducting questionnaires, organizing focus groups, and conducting big data analysis. For example, animated characters for the children's market often use bright and highly saturated tones to attract children's attention because these colors are easier to catch their eyes.


Different regions show obvious inconsistencies in market demand. The North American market tends to favor highly saturated and contrasting colors, while the Asian market tends to favor softer and warmer colors. For example, in the Japanese animation "Dragon Ball", the characters display a large number of bright red and orange tones, which is highly consistent with the aesthetics of Asian audiences. However, "The Simpsons" adopted a simpler color design in the United States to satisfy the aesthetic preferences of Western audiences.


Market research data shows that North American audiences tend to prefer highly saturated and contrasting colors, while Asian audiences prefer soft and warm tones. For example, according to a 2022 market survey by International Color & Design Research, 70% of North American respondents said they prefer strong contrasting color combinations, while in the Asian market, this proportion was only 40% (source : Smith, J. & Lee, H. (2022). International Color Preferences in Media. Journal of Color and Design, 34(2), 123-134). This study conducted a detailed analysis of audience color preferences under different cultural backgrounds through a questionnaire survey of 1,000 North American and 1,000 Asian respondents, providing important data support for cross-cultural color design.


Such as the blue and white tones in "Frozen", while Asian audiences prefer softer and warmer tones, such as the pinks and greens in "Spirited Away". The survey also showed that 80% of North American viewers believe that bright colors can better attract their attention, while 65% of Asian viewers said that soft colors make them feel more comfortable and friendly. In "Frozen", designers chose high-saturation blue and white to reflect Elsa's ice power. This color choice was very successful in the North American market, and audience feedback showed that this color combination not only highlighted the character's Unique abilities and in line with the audience's expectations for magic and fantasy. In "Spirited Away", Hayao Miyazaki used a large number of soft pinks and greens, which not only highlighted the innocence and nature of the characters, but also fit the Asian audience's preference for color, successfully enhancing the film's cultural resonance and Market acceptance.


Audience color preference


Color is preferred by many audiences, so a deep understanding of these preferences is critical to character creation and marketing strategies. Audiences of different ages have different reactions to color. Children are more likely to choose bright and saturated colors, while adults prefer rich and pastel color combinations. For example, in "Peppa Pig", pink and blue were used as visual materials, successfully attracting a large number of child audiences; the blue and white colors shown in "Frozen" successfully attracted many different audiences. age group audience. By analyzing the color preferences of different age groups, designers can select and use colors more specifically. Gender plays a significant role in influencing people's color preferences. Traditionally, girls tend to prefer pink and purple, while boys tend to prefer blue and green. However, gender color preferences are gradually changing, and designers should pay attention to gender neutrality and a variety of color matching options. In the play "Frozen", Elsa's blue ice and snow decoration not only won the favor of girls, but also broke the traditional concepts of gender bias and attracted a wider audience of boys.


From a cultural perspective: Cultural background has a clear role in color preference. Red is often regarded as a symbol of good luck and festivals in Chinese cultural traditions, so it is often chosen when designing characters for the Chinese market. In Western civilization, red is often closely associated with love and passion. By mastering and utilizing the colors and emotional symbols of various cultures, designers have the potential to better meet the diverse needs of global audiences. For example, "Coco" used rich colors to depict the Mexican Day of the Dead culture, successfully attracting a global audience.


In terms of psychological and emotional responses: Color has the ability to trigger emotional connections and psychological experiences in the audience. Red can evoke our imagination of fire and passion, while blue may evoke the viewer’s curiosity and association with the sky and ocean. Designers can use these psychological associative elements to better stimulate the emotional depth of characters and improve visual presentation capabilities. For example, when we incorporated warm tones and rich colors into Coco, it not only enhanced the visual experience of the film, but also successfully conveyed the core message of a celebration of life and family.


Color strategy in brand image building


Color is an important element in brand image building. Through a consistent color strategy, brand recognition and market influence can be enhanced. Brand Consistency: Maintaining consistency in your brand colors helps build a strong brand image. For example, many of Disney’s classic characters use bright red, yellow, and blue colors. These colors not only match the character’s personality, but are also highly consistent with the Disney brand image. Through a consistent color strategy, a brand can establish a strong visual identity and brand memory in the market.


Convey the brand’s core values ​​and emotions through color. Color evokes emotional resonance in viewers, thereby enhancing brand loyalty. For example, Pixar animation’s color designs are often warm and human, conveying its brand values ​​of care and family. In "Finding Nemo," bright colors and warm tones not only enhance the film's visual appeal, but also convey the core themes of family and friendship.


Color strategy can also help brands stand out in the market. For example, DreamWorks Animation differentiates itself from other animation studios by using bold, vibrant colors to make its character designs more personal and recognizable. The rich colors in "Kung Fu Panda" not only enhance the visual appeal of the characters, but also successfully convey Chinese cultural elements, adding to the uniqueness of the film.


In cross-media promotion, it is also crucial to maintain the consistency of character color. Whether in movies, TV, games or advertising, the colors of characters should remain consistent to ensure consistency and continuity in the brand image. For example, the characters in the "Super Mario" series maintain a unified color design whether in games, movies or peripheral products, which enhances the brand's overall recognition and market influence.


The application of the color of characters in animation in terms of market demand, the audience's personal color preference and brand appearance fully highlights the core value of color in character creation and marketing activities. When designers and marketing practitioners have scientific insights and practical applications of color psychology and cultural context, they can create animated characters that are highly visually appealing and emotionally resonant. This method not only helps to shape the character and express emotions, but also improves the character's recognition and acceptance in various cultural backgrounds. In the context of globalization, fully understanding and using color symbols and emotional links in different cultures is crucial to the construction of cross-cultural animated characters and the success of their marketing.


III. Interpretation of character color design from a cross-cultural perspective


Cross-Cultural Overview


cross cultural concept


Every culture has its own unique color symbols and emotional connections, which profoundly affect people's views and feelings about colors. Cross-culture mainly refers to communication, cognition and adaptation in different cultural backgrounds. In a cross-cultural context, designers must pay attention to visual symbols and audience preferences in various cultural situations to ensure that character creation can be universally recognized and accepted internationally.


The importance of cross-cultural research


This article highlights the core role of cross-cultural research in the field of character color design: in the context of global market demand, as the trend of globalization continues to accelerate, animation creation must not only face the domestic market, but also the global market. Extensive delivery and promotion within the scope. Cross-cultural research helps designers delve into the symbolism of color and audience preferences in their respective rich cultural contexts, so they can design characters with global appeal.


Regarding cultural identity and recognition: Various cultures have different representative meanings and emotional responses to colors. Cross-cultural research can help designers avoid misunderstandings and conflicts caused by cultural differences, thereby creating characters that are consistent with the expectations of the target culture, and improving the sense of belonging and acceptance of these characters in various cultural backgrounds. Emotional resonance and experience level: Color plays an important role in conveying emotions and shaping character images. Cross-cultural research provides designers with emotional thinking in different cultural contexts, and can enhance the emotional impact of their characters and enhance the audience's experience through color design. For example, the work "Coco" uses bright colors to show the culture of Mexico's Day of the Dead. This not only presents the audience with a more shocking visual experience, but also successfully conveys the message about celebrating life and family. core idea. For animation industry brands, in-depth cross-cultural discussions constitute a key component of the brand's globalization strategy. With the help of cross-cultural color fusion, brands have the ability to create a unified brand image globally and enhance their international competitiveness. For example, Disney has successfully promoted its classic characters and brand images around the world by virtue of its in-depth insight into and effective use of cultural differences.


Studying cross-culture can not only help you understand and respect different cultures, but also help deepen communication and integration between cultures. Using cross-cultural color design methods, animation can convey the core values ​​and aesthetics of each culture on an international level, thereby promoting mutual understanding and communication between different cultures. For example, by incorporating symbols of Chinese culture into character creation, "Mulan" successfully conveyed China's profound cultural connotations to global audiences.


Application of cross-cultural research in animation character design


Cross-cultural research in animation character design mainly focuses on the following points:


(1) There are differences in cross-cultural color symbolism: Different cultures may convey very different symbolic meanings to the same color. For example, in Chinese culture, red often represents auspiciousness and happiness, while in some Western concepts, it may represent danger and warning. Designers need to devote themselves to transnational cultural research and deepen their understanding of the color symbolism of the target market to prevent character design flaws caused by cultural misunderstandings.


(2) Cross-cultural color connections: Under different cultural backgrounds, people have different feelings about colors. For example, in many Western cultural concepts, blue is seen as a symbol of trust and calmness. However, in some Asian cultures, it may also be considered a color of sadness and melancholy. Designers need to conduct in-depth cross-cultural research to explore color and emotional associations in different cultural backgrounds and create characters that can generate positive emotional resonance.


(3) Cross-cultural analysis of color preferences: Through cross-cultural research, we can explore color preferences in different cultural backgrounds, providing a strong data basis for character design. For example, one culture may prefer bright and saturated colors, while another culture may prefer muted and desaturated colors. Understanding various color preferences can help designers select and adopt those colors more accurately.


(4) In cross-cultural animation creation, harmonious colors as a strategy can significantly enhance the visual charm of characters and the deep resonance of culture. Designers need to work hard to find comprehensive ways to create positive colors in multiple cultural contexts, so as to achieve cultural balance and emotional integration of color. As an example, blue and green carry positive symbolic connotations in numerous cultural contexts, and they can be considered the core of cross-cultural color design.


Challenges and Countermeasures of Cross-Cultural Research


Even though cross-cultural research plays a key role in the field of animation character design, we also encounter many difficulties and challenges when applying it. Regarding cultural diversity and complexity: The differences between various cultures are not only reflected in color symbols and emotional connections, but also touch on more profound values, deeply believed beliefs and action patterns. When designers create characters with cross-cultural charm, they need to conduct in-depth exploration of culture and fully understand various cultural differences.


Due to differences in language and communication methods, this communication can be hindered and affect the designer's interpretation of a certain culture. Designers have the ability to effectively eliminate bottlenecks in cross-cultural communication through close cooperation with experts in the cultural field, market researchers and local research teams, thereby obtaining cultural information more accurately. In cross-cultural animation production, achieving perfect cultural integration is indeed a challenging but crucial task. Designers should explore the commonalities between different cultures and use color design to integrate and harmoniously develop cultures. For example, in the work "Coco", the artist cleverly used brilliant colors to show the traditional culture of Mexico's Day of the Dead, while also incorporating emotional themes that global audiences can experience and identify with, thus cleverly realizing the cultural The perfect blend.


Although cross-cultural research can be used to predict audience preferences, market responses still carry a degree of uncertainty. This means that the unpredictability of market reactions is not a certain factor or phenomenon. Designers need to continuously optimize color schemes in daily design and application to adapt to the changing market. For example, the global success of "Mulan" is not only due to its color design that is consistent with Chinese culture, but also its advertising and promotions have been optimized and fine-tuned based on various market feedback.


In the color design of animated characters, the role and value of cross-cultural research cannot be ignored. After designers deeply understand and apply the core concepts of cross-cultural scientific research, they can create animated characters that have global appeal and resonate emotionally with the audience. Cross-cultural color design not only meets the global needs of the market, but also improves the sense of belonging and acceptance of characters in multiple cultural backgrounds, and facilitates cultural exchanges and integration. In the context of globalization, the success of animated character color design is largely attributed to cross-cultural research. In order to successfully create animated characters and succeed in the context of globalization, designers need to continue to deepen their understanding of the symbolism and emotional connections of various cultural colors and adopt scientific color design techniques.


Character color analysis across cultural backgrounds


Culture is dynamic, and the symbolic meaning of colors also changes with time and social circumstances. For example, according to surveys of the North American and Asian markets, North American audiences prefer highly saturated and contrasting colors, while Asian audiences prefer softer and warmer tones. This finding has important guiding significance for the color design of animated characters. Designers should adjust color strategies according to the preferences of the target market.


Cross-cultural differences in color symbolism


There may be differences in the symbolic meaning of the same color under different cultural backgrounds, and this difference will undoubtedly play a huge role in promoting character design. In traditional Chinese culture, red represents the image of good luck, celebration and happiness, and is often used as a symbol of wedding banquets and various celebrations. In the animated work "Mulan", the red color not only highlights the protagonist's courage and strength, but also contains the positive atmosphere of Chinese culture. In Western culture, red is usually more associated with passion, risk and love. For example, in the Disney TV series Beauty and the Beast, red roses represent the intersection of emotional beauty and risk. White, which represents purity, wedding ceremonies and rebirth in Western culture, often appears in wedding attire or religious activities. For example, Elsa wears a white and blue evening dress in "Frozen" to convey to us the theme of purity and ice. In many Eastern cultural traditions, white is regarded as a symbol of death and funeral, carrying a deep meaning of sadness and mourning. Blue: In the context of Western culture, blue often means trust, tranquility and wisdom, and therefore has become the preferred color for many corporate brands. Take the animation "Finding Nemo" as an example. The main character Dory uses a lot of blue elements to enhance the peaceful and mysterious atmosphere of the ocean. In some cultural traditions of the Middle East and South Asia, blue may be regarded as representing protection and sanctity, and contains unique cultural significance. Green: In many cultural contexts, green is considered to symbolize the natural environment, peace, and continued growth. For example, the pasture scenes depicted in "The Lion King" are mostly green, which conveys the central idea of ​​nature and life. In some Islamic civilization concepts, green is not only considered a sacred symbol, but also carries important religious and spiritual connotations. In Western civilization, black often represents energy, mystery and nobility, and is closely related to death or grief. For example, in the movie "Batman", the black costume shows the mystery and power of the character's heart. In some African civilization concepts, black tones may represent growth and harvest, and have positive representative value.


Cross-cultural differences in emotional responses to color


Color is not only representative, it can also evoke deep emotions in the viewer, which are unique in various cultural contexts. The audience can generate emotional resonance through color, and this resonance may be different in the audience's emotional experience of color in different cultural backgrounds. For example, in Chinese culture, red has the ability to stimulate positive emotional resonance and stimulate happiness and excitement; in some European cultural concepts, red may sometimes cause nervousness and sensitive emotional reactions. Therefore, when designing characters that serve various cultural backgrounds, adequate consideration must be given to these differences in emotional responses. The influence of cultural background on our emotions plays a profound role in the emotional response of viewers when experiencing color. In Western culture, blue often brings people a sense of tranquility and comfort, but in some Asian cultures, blue is often seen as a color that represents coldness and sadness. Therefore, when choosing colors, designers need to have a deep understanding of the emotional connections of the target culture to ensure that the characters can produce the desired emotional response.


Audiences have various cultural preferences: Audiences from different cultural backgrounds have different tendencies towards color, and these differences are directly related to the design effect of role-playing. As an example, in children's animation, the colors of the characters are usually chosen to be bright and full, because these specific colors are extremely attractive and can greatly win the attention and preference of children. In adult animated character presentations, the characters may be able to incorporate more neutral elements and varied colors in order to convey emotions more deeply and complexly.


Case Study: Successful Cross-Cultural Color Application


Through in-depth interpretation of successful animation examples, we can have a more comprehensive understanding of the implementation methods and results of cross-cultural color.


Disney's show "Mulan"


In this work, Disney uses bright red and golden tones to show the joy and brilliance of Chinese culture. The color red not only emphasizes Mulan’s bravery and tenacity, but also enhances her resonance and resonance with culture. This color choice not only matches the aesthetic desires of Chinese audiences, but also demonstrates the unique appeal of Chinese culture to audiences around the world.


(2) Pixar’s “Coco”


This work, through its colorful palette, profoundly depicts Mexico's love and culture of the dead. Color not only enriches the visuals of the film, it also successfully conveys the theme of commemoration of life and family. In the film, the choice of orange and purple not only adds joy and joy during the festival, but also provides in-depth connotation and multi-layered display of culture, thus winning widespread praise and preference from global audiences.


(3) "Kung Fu Panda" by DreamWorks


Through bold and distinctive tonal expressions, the film not only enhances the visual charm of the characters, but also effectively displays China's cultural characteristics. The green and gold in the movie not only reflect nature and power, but also deepen the characters' cultural identity and global appeal.


(4) Application of color strategy in cross-cultural character design


When designing cross-cultural characters, the cultural heritage of the target market, the audience's preferences and their emotional tendencies should be fully taken into consideration. Next, a series of detailed color matching methods are listed: In order to understand the various color symbols and emotional connections of the target market, designers must conduct in-depth multi-cultural investigations. Using focus groups, questionnaire research and market analysis methods, primary cultural data can be directly captured to provide guidance for color design. When constructing cross-cultural character designs, the harmonious combination of colors is considered a key tool to promote cultural integration. Designers have the ability to select color combinations that have far-reaching meanings in various cultural backgrounds, thereby achieving cultural integration and emotional communication of color. For example, blue and green have positive representative values ​​in various cultures, and these colors can be regarded as the foundation of cross-cultural color design. When designing characters across cultures, designers should reconfigure colors according to the cultural environment of the target market, which helps achieve cultural adaptability. As an example, when designing characters for the Asian market, red and gold are used extensively to better suit local cultural icons and aesthetic preferences. Color detection and feedback: In the color design process, implementing color detection and listening to audience feedback are key links to ensure that the design meets the standards. By conducting color tests on audiences from different cultural backgrounds, we can gain insight into the actual response in the market and adjust and optimize the color design accordingly.


In a multi-cultural context, detailed analysis of character tones is crucial to the successful design of global animated characters. After analyzing and interpreting color symbolism and audience feedback in different cultural contexts, designers have the ability to create characters with international appeal and emotional resonance. Cross-cultural design colors not only cater to global market needs, but also enhance individuals' sense of identity and identity in various cultural environments, thus enhancing the interaction and integration between cultures. In the process of globalization, the discussion of cross-cultural colors is regarded as a decisive factor in the success of character design in animation.


Various cultural color design methods based on psychological archetypes


Jung's theory of psychological archetypes presents us with a core set of psychological models that are not only universal but also show similarities across cultural contexts. Through the use of these prototypes, designers can more effectively apply color to animated character design, thereby achieving cross-cultural appeal and emotional resonance. The following is an explanation of the design methods of various cultural colors based on Jung's psychological archetype theory.


Overview of Jung's Psychological Archetype Theory


Swiss psychologist Carl Jung first proposed Jung's psychological archetype theory. He believed that there are many ubiquitous archetypes in the human unconscious. These archetypes are components of the human collective unconscious and are expressed in different cultural backgrounds. Displayed in similar forms. There are many basic archetypes defined by Jung, among them the hero, the wise man, the mother, the shadow, himself, the magician and the lover. These archetypes are ubiquitous in culture, mythology and art, and have specific symbolic and emotional characteristics.


The connection between color and psychological archetypes


Color has important symbolic meaning and emotional impact in psychology. Jung's psychological archetype theory provides a profound psychological foundation for color design. For example, the hero archetype often uses red and gold to show the character's passion and strength, such as the red and blue tones in "Superman"; the wise man archetype uses blue and purple to show calmness and wisdom, such as in "Harry Potter" Dumbledore.


Hero: The hero archetype symbolizes courage, adventure, and challenge. Red and gold are usually used to show the passion, strength and glory of heroes. For example, the red and blue animated characters in "Superman" convey heroism and strength.


Wise Old Man/Woman: The Wise Old Man archetype symbolizes wisdom, knowledge and guidance. Blue and purple are often used to show that wise men are calm, thoughtful, and mysterious. For example, Dumbledore in "Harry Potter" wears a blue and purple robe, which is a symbol of his wisdom and magical power.


Mother: The mother archetype symbolizes care, nourishment and protection. Green and brown are usually used to show the mother's naturalness, warmth and stability. For example, "Snow White" uses a lot of green in the forest scenes to convey nature and security.


Shadow: The shadow archetype symbolizes the dark side, fear, and unaccepted parts of the heart. Black and deep purple are often used to show the mystery, threat and power of shadows. For example, the character Scar in "The Lion King" uses black and dark tones to show his sin and ambition.


Self: The self archetype marks the ability of completeness, unity, and self-realization. White and gold are often used to show your own purity, perfection and transcendence. For example, the Jedi Knights in "Star Wars" use white and gold to symbolize spiritual pursuit and self-transcendence.


Magician: The Magician archetype symbolizes transformation, creation, and mystery. Purple and silver are usually used to display the mysteries, strength and spells of magicians. For example, in "Frozen" Elsa uses blue and silver to show her magical power and mystery.


Lover: The Lover archetype is a symbol of love, beauty and sensuality. Pink and red are often used to show tenderness, passion and romance in lovers. For example, in "Beauty and the Beast", Belle uses yellow and red to symbolize beauty and love.


Various cultural color design methods


In a variety of cultural contexts, designers can design animated characters with cross-cultural appeal by combining Jung's theory of psychological archetypes with color psychology. When designing, first conduct cultural research to understand the target cultural color symbol and audience preferences. Then match these color symbols with Jungian psychological archetypes. For example, when designing heroic characters that conform to the characteristics of Chinese culture, you can choose colors such as red and gold, which are symbols of auspiciousness and power in Chinese culture. Use color psychology emotional association and psychological prototype symbolic meaning to strengthen the emotional expression of characters. For example, when we design a cross-cultural wise man character, both blue and purple can be used. They symbolize the wisdom and mystery of various cultures. By selecting colors that have positive meanings in different cultures, the purpose of cultural reconciliation and integration of colors can be achieved. For example, green and blue have positive symbolic meanings in many cultures, which can provide a basis for cross-cultural color design to express nature and peace. Analyze the color design of successful animation works and draw cross-cultural color strategies from them. For example, Elsa in "Frozen" uses a lot of blue, white and other colors, which not only coincides with the symbol of ice and snow in Western culture, but also arouses widespread emotional resonance among people around the world.


Case Study: Successful Application of Multiple Cultural Colors


Through the analysis of specific cases, we can have a deeper understanding of various cultural color design techniques based on Jung's psychological archetype theory. Disney's "Mulan" uses red and gold to convey the festival and splendor of Chinese culture, and also fits the heroic prototype of bravery and strength. This color choice not only successfully entered the Chinese market, but also aroused positive responses from audiences around the world. Pixar's Coco uses rich oranges and purples to showcase Mexico's Day of the Dead culture, and deftly combines it with the true emotion and warmth of a loved one, successfully conveying a celebration of life and family at its core. idea. This color design resonates with universal emotions around the world. For DreamWorks’ “Kung Fu Panda,” designers used green and gold to convey the nature and power of Chinese culture, while also fitting in with the symbolic meaning of the hero and magician archetypes. The film's color design not only enhanced the visual appeal of the characters, but also achieved worldwide success.


Various cultural design methods based on Jung's psychological archetype theory have laid a profound psychological foundation for character design in animation. By combining color psychology with cultural context, designers can create a character with strong cross-cultural appeal and strong emotional resonance. Cross-cultural color design not only meets the needs of the global market, but also improves the characters' recognition and acceptance of different cultural backgrounds. In the context of globalization, understand and use color symbols and emotional associations in different cultures, and use scientific color design strategies to achieve the success of animated character globalization.


Cultural differences in understanding of character color design


In the context of globalization, animation character design needs to take into account the differences in the perception and acceptance of color among different cultures. It’s not just about the symbolic meaning of colors, but also about how colors affect people’s emotional and psychological states.


Cultural differences in color symbolism


Different cultures have obvious differences in the symbolic meaning of colors, and these differences are particularly important when designing characters. Red: Red is a symbol of auspiciousness, jubilation and happiness in Chinese culture, and is mostly used in weddings and festivals. Taking "Mulan" as an example, the color red not only shows the bravery and strength of the characters, but also conveys the positive energy of Chinese culture. And in some Western cultures, red is more related to passion, danger and love. For example, the red rose in "Beauty and the Beast" symbolizes the intertwining of love and danger. White: White is a symbol of purity in Western culture, a symbol of weddings and rebirth, and is often used in wedding dresses and religious ceremonies. For example, in "Frozen", Elsa wore a white and blue dress to convey the theme of purity and ice and snow. Moreover, in many Eastern cultures, white symbolizes death and funeral, as well as sadness and mourning. Blue: Blue usually symbolizes trust, calmness and wisdom in Western culture, and is also the color of choice for many corporate brands. For example, Dory, the protagonist of the animation "Finding Nemo", uses a lot of blue to emphasize the tranquility and mystery of the ocean. Moreover, in some cultures in the Middle East and South Asia, blue may be a symbol of protection and holiness, and has a special cultural background. Green: Green is a symbol of many cultures, a symbol of nature, peace and growth. For example, "The Lion King" mainly uses grassland scenery and uses green to convey the theme of nature and life. And in some Islamic cultures, people believe that green is a holy color and has religious and spiritual symbols. Black: Black in Western culture generally symbolizes power, mystery and sublimity, but it is also associated with death and sadness. For example, the black costume in "Batman" conveys the mystery and strength of the character. And in some African cultures, black may be a sign of maturity and harvest, which has a positive symbolic meaning.


Cultural differences in emotional responses to color


People from different cultural backgrounds will have different emotional reactions to color, which will have a significant impact on character design. Red emotional response - Chinese culture red can cause positive emotional responses and festive excitement; and in some Western cultures, red can also cause emotional responses of nervousness and vigilance. Therefore, these different emotional reactions need to be taken into account when designing for characters from different cultural backgrounds. Emotional response to blue - Blue usually brings a sense of tranquility and comfort to Western cultures, while some Asian cultures consider blue to be an indifferent and sad color. Therefore, designers’ choice of colors requires understanding the emotional associations in the target culture to ensure that the characters evoke the desired emotional response. Green Emotional Response Green is a symbol of many cultures. It is the embodiment of nature and peace, and can give people a comfortable and relaxed mood. However, green may be associated with disease and death in some cultures. Therefore, designers need to choose a green tone suitable for their own application scenarios based on the target cultural background.


The influence of cultural background on color preference


Audiences from different cultures have different preferences for color, which is directly related to the design results of the characters. Color preferences regarding age and gender: There are clear differences in color preferences among viewers of different age groups and genders. Children generally prefer bright and saturated colors, such as red, yellow, blue, etc., while adults may prefer mild and complex tones. Gender differences also have a certain impact on color preferences. Traditionally, girls prefer pink and purple, while boys prefer blue and green. But modern design trends have gradually broken down these traditional prejudices and used more neutral color schemes. Color preferences in cultural customs and beliefs Cultural customs and beliefs profoundly affect color preferences. For example, Islamic culture believes that green is a holy color, and some Western cultures believe that black is a symbol of nobility and power. Designers need to understand and respect these cultural customs and beliefs when designing characters, so as to ensure that the characters can be recognized and liked by the target audience.


Design strategies and adjustments


In order to successfully launch animated characters in the global market, designers need to adopt some specific strategies and adjustments to deal with the impact of cultural differences on color design. During the design process, multicultural research was first conducted to understand the color symbolism and audience preferences of the target market. Through focus groups, questionnaires and market analysis, first-hand cultural information can be obtained to guide color design. During the color design process, conducting color testing and audience feedback are important steps to ensure a successful design. By conducting color tests with audiences of different cultural backgrounds, real market reactions can be obtained, and color designs can be adjusted and optimized based on feedback. In cross-cultural character design, designers need to adjust color design according to the cultural background of the target market to achieve cultural adaptation and integration. For example, in character design for the Asian market, red and gold can be used more to conform to local cultural symbols and aesthetic preferences. Designers need to flexibly apply color psychology and design characters that can arouse positive emotional resonance based on color symbolism and emotional associations in different cultural backgrounds. For example, when designing a wise man character across cultures, you can use blue and purple, colors that symbolize wisdom and mystery in many cultures.


Different cultures have different understanding and acceptance of character color design, which poses challenges and opportunities to animated character design. By deeply understanding and analyzing these differences, designers can create characters with global appeal and emotional resonance. The cross-cultural color design not only meets the needs of the global market, but also enhances the identity and acceptance of the characters in different cultural backgrounds. Under the background of globalization, understand and apply the color symbols and emotional associations of different cultures, and achieve the global success of animated characters through scientific color design strategies.


Animation character color extraction algorithm


color space conversion


The conversion of color space is the core link in the color extraction process. Various color spaces can be used in various color analysis tasks. Common color spaces include RGB, HSV, and Lab.


(1) RGB color space: RGB (red, green, blue) is the most common color space, which directly corresponds to the color mode of the display device. Although it is suitable for color display and editing, it is not suitable for complex color analysis due to uneven color distribution in the RGB color space.


(2) HSV color space: HSV (hue, saturation, value) color space is closer to human color perception and is suitable for color analysis. Hue represents the type of color, saturation represents the purity of the color, and value represents the brightness of the color. When designing animated characters, HSV color space is usually used for color extraction and analysis. If it is transformed into the HSV color space, the main tones and color ranges of the characters can be more easily extracted.


(3) Lab color space: Lab color space is built based on the human visual system, making people's perception of brightness (L) and color (a and b) more balanced. Lab color space is suitable for high-precision color analysis and comparison. In scenes with high requirements for color consistency and contrast, the use of Lab color space can provide more accurate color characteristics.


Color clustering algorithm


Color clustering techniques are used to subdivide the colors in an image into color groups, each group representing a core color. Common color clustering algorithms include K-means clustering, Mean Shift clustering and Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM).


K-means clustering is a simple and efficient image clustering method, which divides image colors into K different color clusters by minimizing the square error of the colors within the cluster. K-means clustering is used in most color extraction tasks, but it is sensitive to the selection of initial cluster centers.


(1) Initializing the clustering center: Selecting the initial clustering center is the first step of the K-means algorithm, and this step affects the accuracy of the final clustering result. The k-means++ algorithm is usually used to optimize the selection of initial clustering centers to avoid unstable results.


(2) Assign pixels: Assign each pixel to the cluster center nearest to it. This step is accomplished by calculating the Euclidean distance of each pixel to all cluster centers, ensuring that each pixel belongs to the nearest center.


(3) Update cluster center: Recalculate the center point of each cluster, which is the average of all pixels assigned to the cluster. This step ensures that the cluster centers more accurately represent their assigned set of pixels.


(4) Repeat iteration: Repeat the process of pixel allocation and cluster center update until the cluster center no longer changes significantly, or the preset number of iterations is reached. This step ensures convergence and stability of the clustering results.


•Application: When designing animated characters, the K-means clustering method can be used to quickly extract the main colors. For example, K-means clustering of character images can determine the main color, secondary color and embellishment color of the character, thereby providing data support for subsequent color analysis.


The application of color extraction algorithms in animated character design provides designers with powerful technical support and innovative tools. By combining advanced color space conversion, clustering algorithms and feature extraction methods, designers can accurately analyze and optimize the character's color design, enhancing the character's visual appeal and emotional resonance. Combined with the theories and methods of cross-cultural color design, color extraction algorithms can achieve cultural adaptation and integration on a global scale, creating animated characters with global appeal and identity. With the development of technology, color extraction algorithms will play a greater role in animation production and other fields, promoting interdisciplinary research and innovation, and achieving higher levels of design and creation.


Cross-Cultural Color Research


Summary of cross-cultural research:


Since there is no direct research on cultural differences in animated characters, we first start with other studies on cross-cultural influences involving visual design.


A 2006 study showed the impact of animated graphic colors on the attention and perceived usability of users from two cultural groups, the United States and Thailand. Regardless of differences in banner color combinations, culture had an impact on overall performance and overall retention. and overall usability self-reports had an impact. [5]


But in a 2021 study on the impact of demographic factors on icon aesthetics, the authors argued that aesthetic perceptions are subjective and may vary depending on the target group. The study investigated the aesthetics of graphical user interface (GUI) elements (i.e. game app icons). The impact of cognitively relevant demographic differences, and finally research shows that demographic factors have relatively little impact on how icons are perceived. [6,6]


In other words, in different fields of visual design, the perceived impact of cross-cultural groups will differ. Cross-cultural group perception in the field of animated character design has yet to be explored.


The application of Jung's theory of archetypes to the study of cross-cultural perception explores how archetypes cross cultural boundaries and tap into common unconscious levels of humanity. Some relevant studies of Jungian archetypes in the cross-cultural field include art therapy, archetypes, and the existence of spiritual archetypes between representatives of Eastern and Western cultures.


Archetypal art therapy in cross-cultural art therapy: explores archetypes as a cross-cultural universal aspect that can touch the deepest unconsciousness common to human beings and therefore has major importance in therapy. The article discusses the use of archetypal symbols through the use of mandalas in Navajo and Tibetan sand paintings as examples, and discusses how modern artists play a role in expressing unconscious cross-cultural emotions (McConeghey, 1986).


Archetypes: Individual Psychology's Contribution to Cross-Cultural Symbolism: Explores how classic Jungian techniques can be used in psychoanalytic therapy by comparing material in patients' dreams or non-directed fantasies with Cross-Cultural Symbolism (CCS). The validity of this approach depends on our view of the origins of CCS, and it is reasonable to use CCS as a source of information for clinical interpretation if we believe that these contents derive primarily from specific general trends in individual psychology (Goodwyn, 2020).


Presence of spiritual archetypes between representatives of Eastern and Western cultures: A cross-cultural study through the foundations of Jungian psychology demonstrates that despite the differences between Polish and Korean cultures, researchers identified The own projection method of eighteen color pictures of the main archetypes revealed many similarities of the archetypal phenomena in the two cultures, as well as the characteristics of the individuation process of the representatives of the two cultures (Weglowska-rzepa et al., 2008).


These studies demonstrate that Jung's archetype theory can provide profound insights into the common psychological structures of humans across cultures. Through archetype theory, we can better understand the common foundations behind human behavior, beliefs, and cultural expressions, thereby promoting cross-cultural understanding and communication.


Therefore, this article believes that Jung's archetype theory has cross-cultural applicability.


Cross-Cultural Color Psychology Supplement


This study believes that color perception is mostly universal, but has certain differences in different cultural backgrounds. In-depth analysis of the differences in the psychological effects and symbolic meanings of colors in different cultures, showing how the same color can cause different emotional reactions or values ​​in different cultures. Complementing this section with case studies and theoretical analysis of cross-cultural color psychology, this section focuses on how these differences impact character design and audience perception.


Color psychology has a significant impact on different cultures, evoking a variety of emotions and beliefs (Color Symbolism and Psychology in Different Cultures, 2019) [7] . The perception of color varies from region to region, highlighting the importance of understanding how color is perceived in cross-cultural communication (How Color is Perceived by Different Cultures, 2020). A study on the effects of light and color on psychological emotions found differences in emotions between developed countries, highlighting the need for cross-cultural comparisons in this area (Effects of light and color on psychological emotions: Crossover, 2006). Research has also delved into cross-cultural color sentiment analysis, exploring the psychology behind color perception and emotion (Cross-Cultural Color Sentiment Analysis, 2007). Additionally, a study on cross-cultural differences in cross-modal correspondence revealed differences in how visual features such as color are perceived across cultures (Cross-Cultural Differences in Cross-Modal Correspondence, 2014). Furthermore, the association of colors with emotions has been studied across different countries and languages, revealing the cultural significance of colors (Do Colors Have Emotions? Understanding Cross-Cultural, 2022). Brands also consider cultural differences in color psychology, as in the example of McDonald’s using red as an auspicious color in India (Color Across Cultures: A Guide to Brand Color Psychology, 2021). While color associations may vary across cultures, color preferences are thought to be relatively consistent across gender and race (Color Psychology - Wikipedia, n.d.). In a cross-cultural study of the emotional meaning of colors, differences in the emotional connotations of colors were observed, highlighting the need for further exploration of cross-cultural color psychology (The Colors of Anger, Jealousy, Fear, and Envy: Across Cultures, 1973)


The development of color psychology: Kobayashi Shigejun's (1966) seminal work in the field of color psychology, including his founding of the Japan Institute of Color Design and his development of the emotional dimension of color, highlighted how color preferences are influenced by cultural context , age, gender, design training and personal experience and other factors (Kobayashi Shigejun, 1966; Kobayashi Shigejun et al., 2002; Ou, 2004).


Li-Chen Ou's research further classified monochromatic color emotions and developed a color emotion model based on color science, revealing the cross-cultural consistency of color emotions among different countries (Ou, Luo, Woodcock, & Wright, 2004 ).


Zhuang Mingzhen explored how gender and personal characteristics affect cognitive differences in color images, used the semantic differential method to analyze color perception, and found that gender is the main factor affecting the perception of color images (Zhuang Mingzhen, 2002).


(3) Differences in color perception among different cultures


Color perception varies across cultures, affecting how individuals categorize and remember colors. Bornstein et al. (1984) explored discrimination and matching within and between hues, emphasizing implications for categorical perception and information processing levels. Boynton et al. (1989) studied categorical color perception using a naming method and introduced the "categorical color difference index" to evaluate color difference. Roberson et al. (2009) found no evidence that English and Korean speakers had reduced discrimination thresholds at color boundaries, challenging the idea that categorical perception arises from distorted perception. Taylor et al (2012) compared color preferences between British and Himba adults, revealing differences and refuting universal color preferences. Park et al (2013) studied color perception in the design of pediatric wards for American and Korean patients, emphasizing the influence of culture on color preferences. Overall, these studies demonstrate the importance of considering cultural differences in color perception and preferences


Despite considerable interest in color and how it affects our mental functioning, color's association with abstract concepts has not been comprehensively studied. Using the full set of hues from the World Color Survey (WCS), color-concept associations are studied systematically and cross-culturally. In the experiment, the authors studied the relationship between English monolingual, Chinese bilingual and Chinese monolingual adults and 11 basic English color terms (black, white, red, yellow, green, blue, brown, purple, pink, orange and gray) conceptual association. They then determined which specific WCS physical colors were associated with which concepts in the three language groups. The results revealed some conceptual color associations that appear to be universal across all cultures, such as white and purity, blue and water/sky, green and health, purple and magnificence, pink and "feminine" qualities, as well as some specific Color concepts are related in culture. For example, red and orange represent passion in Chinese, and red represents attraction in English. These findings provide important information for understanding how color affects our cognition and behavior, and can also help us predict the universality and cultural differences of color-concept associations on cognition and behavior. [8]


(4) Color extraction algorithm


The K-Means clustering algorithm shows high efficiency and accuracy in color extraction, and is particularly suitable for processing large amounts of data. During the color extraction process, the K-Means clustering algorithm first initializes the cluster center and then assigns all data to the closest cluster center. Next, this process is repeated by calculating the center of each cluster and redistributing the data until the cluster centers no longer change. When analyzing multiple animated character images, this algorithm can effectively group the colors in the images, extract representative colors, and use them to build a color network model to further analyze the relationship between character colors.


<Table> 2 Comparison of color clustering algorithms and applied scientific research results


Paper title

算法

应用


main feature


Research on the color characteristics of Miao bird pattern embroidery patterns in southeastern Guizhou based on clustering algorithm [9]


K-Means clustering algorithm


Extract the color characteristics of bird embroidery patterns and analyze the matching rules


Color feature extraction, color network model


Butterfly color analysis and application based on clustering algorithm and color network [10]


K-Means clustering algorithm


Butterfly Color Analysis and Its Application in Textile Design


Main color extraction, color network model


Color extraction and analysis of national cheongsam based on clustering algorithm and PCCS system [11]


Fuzzy C-means clustering and K-Means sub-channel secondary clustering for superpixel segmentation


Extract the representative colors of Republic of China cheongsam and analyze the color matching rules


Color extraction, Apriori algorithm color matching analysis


Research on the color image of Miao embroidery clothing in southeastern Guizhou based on color network [12]


K-Means clustering algorithm


Construct a color network model to improve the cultural accuracy of clothing design


Color network model, Kansei Engineering


Color analysis of digital inkjet printing Xiangyunsha cheongsam based on color network [13]


Octree quantization algorithm, Apriori association rule algorithm


Analyze the color characteristics and matching rules of Xiangyunsha cheongsam


Main color and auxiliary color extraction, Apriori algorithm matching analysis


Image-based target feature extraction algorithm [14]


color similar area method


Fast and accurate image edge and bifurcation point feature extraction


Color edge extraction, color similar area method


Analysis and application of color characteristics of Mawangdui silk paintings based on K-means clustering [15]


K-Means clustering algorithm


Extract the characteristic colors of silk paintings to provide guidance for the design of cultural and creative products


Color extraction, color network model


Artistic Coloring: Color Transfer in Painting [16]


Art Balance Color Theme Extraction Algorithm


Automatic color transfer, extracting and applying color features of paintings


Color extraction, color transfer


Color network model and color matching design auxiliary technology for traditional patterns [17]


K-Means clustering algorithm


Assist the color design of traditional patterns and improve the designer's work efficiency


Color extraction, color network model


Application of jacquard fabric pattern design based on landform color characteristics [18]


K-Means clustering algorithm


Explore the color patterns of landforms and apply them to jacquard fabric design


Color extraction, bionic design


Based on this goal, this paper refers to several algorithms from the above studies, especially those that can effectively handle color extraction and network construction.


The first is the K-Means clustering algorithm. The K-Means clustering algorithm is used in "Butterfly Color Analysis and Application Based on Clustering Algorithm and Color Network", which not only extracts the main colors, but also builds a color network model. This shows that the algorithm is suitable for extracting key colors from diverse images and can be further used to build color networks. The K-Means clustering algorithm shows high efficiency and accuracy in color extraction, and is particularly suitable for processing large amounts of data. In the multiple animated character images in this article, it can effectively group the colors in the image and extract representative color and can be used for subsequent color network analysis.


The second is the construction of the color network model: In the "Color Network Model of Traditional Patterns and Color Matching Design Assistance Technology", the K-Means clustering algorithm and color network model are used to analyze and assist color matching design. This shows that the relationship between colors can be effectively analyzed and demonstrated through the color network model. The color network model can reveal the color interrelationships between different characters and help conduct an in-depth analysis of the characters' colors from the perspective of Jung's archetype theory. This method can quantitatively demonstrate the color connections and differences between characters, helping to understand the connection between character design and archetype theory.


The application of color extraction algorithms in animated character design provides designers with powerful technical support and innovative tools. Specifically, the K-means clustering algorithm first initializes the clustering centers, that is, randomly selects k initial clustering centers. Next, each pixel in the image is assigned to its closest cluster center. The calculation basis of this step is Euclidean distance. By calculating the distance between each pixel and each cluster center, it is assigned to the cluster center with the shortest distance. Then, recalculate the center of each cluster, that is, calculate the average of all pixels in the cluster as the new cluster center. Repeat the above steps until the cluster center no longer changes or the preset maximum number of iterations is reached. In animated character design, designers can use the K-means clustering algorithm to quickly extract the main colors of the character, such as primary hues, secondary hues, and embellishment colors, so as to provide data support for subsequent color analysis. For example, when designing a heroic character, cluster analysis can be used to determine that the character's main color is red, the secondary color is blue, and the embellishment color is gold. The combination of these colors can enhance the character's visual appeal and emotional resonance.


IV. Research design


Character Color Research Model and Research Questions

[] 2研究模型构建


research model

build process


In animated character design, designers can use the K-means clustering algorithm to quickly extract the main colors of the character, such as primary hues, secondary hues, and embellishment colors, so as to provide data support for subsequent color analysis. For example, when designing a heroic character, cluster analysis can be used to determine that the character's main color is red, the secondary color is blue, and the embellishment color is gold. The combination of these colors can enhance the character's visual appeal and emotional resonance.


This study recognizes that mixed methodologies have both strengths and limitations. For example, the interpretation of qualitative data can be subjective, while the collection of quantitative data can be affected by sample selection bias. To address these limitations, several measures will be taken, including using triangulation to enhance the credibility of the data and diversifying the sample to ensure representativeness of the findings.

[] 3动画角色色彩研究模型图


In the statistical analysis stage, methods such as descriptive statistical analysis, regression analysis, and analysis of variance will be used to identify the relationship between color usage and the perception of the character's personality. Through these statistical methods, the impact of color design on cross-cultural character perception can be quantified, thereby providing empirical support for color decisions in animation creation. Data analysis using Python software will help reveal the statistical significance between color preferences and cultural differences.


Color extraction and data processing


Step 1: Extract HSV colors for each prototype


Before starting the research, you first need to define the prototype of the animated character. These archetypes are based on Jung's theory of psychological archetypes and include the hero, the shadow, the wise man, the child, etc. Extracting the main colors of each prototype was the basis of the research. The HSV color model was chosen because it can more intuitively reflect human perception of color. Hue represents the color type, Saturation represents the purity of the color, and Value represents the brightness of the color. This model can help researchers extract and analyze character colors more accurately.


Step 2: Image Data Collection


Collecting image data containing target characters in animated films is the basis of the entire study. It is necessary to ensure that the collected images cover the performance of the characters in different scenes to ensure the representativeness and comprehensiveness of the data. This step may require obtaining image data through multiple channels, such as movie frame screenshots, promotional posters, character design manuscripts, etc.


Step 3: Image Color Extraction and Processing


Using image processing techniques, the character's color information is extracted from the collected images. Removing background noise is key, as the background color may interfere with extraction of the character's main color. Image processing can use a variety of software and algorithms, such as Photoshop, the OpenCV library in Python, etc. These tools can extract the main color areas of the character to ensure the accuracy of the color data.


Step 4: Color clustering and main color extraction


Cluster analysis of the extracted color data allows similar colors to be grouped together to identify the main color of the character. Cluster analysis can use the K-means clustering algorithm to classify color data and identify the main color characteristics of the characters. This step reduces the complexity of the data and makes subsequent analysis simpler.


Step 5: Convert RGB color information to HSV


Convert the extracted RGB (Red, Green, Blue) color information to HSV color space. The HSV color space is more in line with human visual perception habits, so it can more accurately reflect color differences and characteristics in subsequent analysis.


Step 6: Output the color information table to Excel


Organize the processed color data into a table format and export it to an Excel file. This can facilitate subsequent data analysis and result display.


(2) Analyze the color differences of characters in HSV space based on prototype theory


Step 1: Read Excel data


At the beginning of this stage, the researcher reads the color data from the Excel file generated in the first stage to prepare for subsequent analysis.


Area-weighted pairwise color difference calculation (CIEDE2000 formula)


Use the CIEDE2000 formula to calculate color differences between characters. This formula provides a more accurate measurement of color difference, taking into account the differences in how the human eye perceives different colors.


Step 3: Color Difference Sorting and Statistical Analysis


The calculated color difference data is sorted, and the distribution of color differences is analyzed using statistical analysis methods. This step helps identify which characters have the greatest and least color differences between them.


Step 4: Pair-by-pair test, Bonferroni correction


The results of pairwise comparisons were adjusted using Bonferroni correction to control type I errors caused by multiple comparisons. This step can improve the reliability and accuracy of the statistical analysis results.


Step 5: Visualize results


Visually display the analysis results in the form of charts. The visualization results can more intuitively reflect the color differences and distribution characteristics between characters.


Step 6: Export final results and graphs


Organize and output analysis results and related charts to provide data support for writing research reports. This step ensures the integrity of the research process and the clear presentation of the results.


The theoretical basis of this study includes color theory, Jungian psychological archetype theory and cross-cultural research theory. These theories provide scientific basis and guidance for research.


Color theory: including the physical properties, psychological effects and cultural symbolic meaning of color. Color theory helps researchers understand the role and effect of color in visual communication.


Jung's psychological archetype theory: Proposes the concept of character archetypes, including heroes, shadows, wise men, children, etc. These archetypes have specific symbolic meanings and emotional characteristics that guide character design.


Cross-cultural research theory: exploring differences in color perception and preferences under different cultural backgrounds. Cross-cultural research theory helps researchers understand different cultures’ different understandings and reactions to color, and provides guidance for cross-cultural character design.


The above research steps comprehensively analyze the cross-cultural characteristics and market application effects of animation character colors, providing scientific basis for animation production and marketing. The research results will help improve the cultural adaptability and market competitiveness of animated character design and promote the international development of the animation industry.


Through a cross-cultural perspective, the color application in animation character design is systematically analyzed to provide theoretical guidance and practical reference for animation production and marketing. Through detailed research design and multi-dimensional data analysis, we explore the differences in audience perceptions and preferences for character colors under different cultural backgrounds, and propose strategies and methods for optimizing character color design. The research results not only enrich the application of color theory and Jung's psychological archetype theory, but also provide innovative ideas for cross-cultural animation production, which has important academic value and practical significance.


Animation character color research issues


This study is based on the hypothesis that audiences from different cultural backgrounds have different emotional and cognitive responses to the colors used in animated characters. Therefore, through cross-cultural comparative analysis of color design, factors that promote or hinder cross-cultural communication can be revealed. Discussing the distribution patterns of color features of different archetypal characters as well as their similarities and differences. Specifically, we ask the following research questions:


First, what is the distribution pattern of color characteristics of different prototype characters? By analyzing the distribution characteristics of the three components H (hue), S (saturation) and V (brightness), we hope to understand the color characteristics of these prototype characters. specific distribution. Hue represents the type of color, saturation represents the purity of the color, and brightness (Value) describes the lightness or darkness of the color. Each character's color scheme reflects their personality traits and emotional attributes. For example, a heroic character might use bright tones to convey courage and justice, while a shadow character might use darker tones to convey mystery and danger.


Second, how similar and different are the color characteristics of different archetypal characters? We use cluster analysis and color difference calculation to deeply explore the similarities and differences in color characteristics between different prototype characters. Cluster analysis can help us discover which characters have similar configurations of color features and thus potentially share similar emotional and cognitive responses. Color difference calculations (such as the CIEDE2000 color difference formula) can quantify the color differences between different characters and help us understand the visual significance of these differences.


This study also focuses on whether the color characteristics of different archetypal characters can be effectively classified by clustering methods. We use the K-means clustering algorithm to determine the optimal number of clusters and evaluate the stability and consistency of the clustering results to verify this. K-means clustering algorithm is a commonly used unsupervised learning method. By assigning data points to k clusters, the data points in each cluster have high similarity, and the differences between clusters larger. Through this method, we hope to be able to effectively distinguish the color configuration patterns of different characters.


Finally, we are interested in whether the color differences between different archetypal characters are statistically significant. Through pairwise paired t-tests, we evaluate whether the color differences between different archetypal characters are statistically significant. The paired t-test is a commonly used statistical method for comparing the difference in means of two groups of related samples. To control for the false discovery rate from multiple testing, we will also use Bonferroni correction, a rigorous multiple comparison method that ensures our significance levels remain stable across multiple comparisons.


Based on these research questions, we propose the following hypotheses: First, the data of the three components H (hue), S (saturation) and V (brightness) significantly deviate from the normal distribution. The histogram, Q-Q plot and Shapiro-Wilk test results support this hypothesis, indicating that the data of these three components do not conform to the normal distribution. By analyzing the distribution characteristics of these data, we can better understand the performance of different archetypal characters on color characteristics.


Secondly, we assume that there are obvious clusters in the color features of different prototype characters in the HSV space. Through the K-means clustering algorithm, we expect to be able to effectively classify the color features of different prototype characters and evaluate their stability and consistency through cross-validation. Cross-validation is a commonly used model evaluation method that evaluates the generalization ability of the model by dividing the data set into a training set and a validation set and repeating the experiment multiple times.


Finally, we hypothesized that color differences between different archetypal characters are statistically significant. Using paired t-tests and Bonferroni corrections, we hope to confirm that these color differences are statistically significant. The results of the significance test will help us understand whether there are substantial differences in color configurations between different characters, thereby providing a scientific basis for animated character design.


These research questions and hypotheses provide us with a framework to systematically analyze and understand the distribution, similarities, differences in color characteristics of different prototype characters and the design logic behind them. Through this framework, we can not only reveal the cross-cultural rules of animated character color design, but also provide specific color design guidance for animators, thereby improving the acceptance and influence of animation works in the international market.


This study not only helps deepen the understanding of animated character color design in theory, but also provides specific design guidance for animators in practice. Through in-depth research on the emotional and cognitive responses of audiences to character colors in different cultural backgrounds, we can discover effective color strategies that promote cross-cultural communication, thereby increasing the acceptance and influence of animated works in the international market.


Research steps


Research object


In the early stages of data collection from the research subjects, this article will investigate popular animated characters in different cultural contexts and perform a cross-cultural comparative analysis. This stage adopted a quantitative approach, involving the collection and screening of data. This study collects and analyzes animated film ranking data from different regions with the aim of identifying and comparing the most popular animated films globally. Data sources cover multiple regions and countries, including North America, Latin America, Europe, Asia, and Australia, ensuring the comprehensiveness and diversity of the research. A detailed description of each region and its corresponding website name is as follows.


The first is North America. The data in this region mainly comes from three well-known movie rating and evaluation platforms, namely IMDb, Rotten Tomatoes and Metacritic. These platforms are widely regarded as important indicators of movie reviews and audience preference measures. [19–21]


Followed by the Latin America region, data from Latin America is concentrated on two websites, FilmAffinity and AdoroCinema. These websites have high influence in the region and provide research on Latin American audiences' preferences and evaluations of animated films. [22,23]


The third is the European region. European data sources are relatively wide, including Allociné (France), KinoPoisk (Russia), Moviepilot (Germany) and Filmweb (Poland). These sites reflect film reviews and audience preferences across Europe's diverse cultural contexts. [24–27]


The fourth is the Asian region. Asian data comes from Douban Movies (Mainland China), CineLab (South Korea), Yahoo! Japanese Movies (Japan) and BookMyShow (India). These websites provide unique perspectives and reviews of animated films from audiences across Asia. [28–31]


Finally, there is the Australian region. The data sources for Australia are the same as for North America, namely IMDb and Rotten Tomatoes. Both sites are equally highly reputable in Australia and are widely used for movie reviews and rankings.


By integrating and analyzing data from these different regions, this study aims to provide a comprehensive analysis of animated film preferences and popularity from a global perspective. This cross-regional data collection method not only increases the breadth of the research, but also makes the results more comprehensive and representative.


After collecting the data, Python was used to clean the data and count the number of times it appeared on each website. The specific code will be listed in the appendix.


<Table> 3 Statistical table of the number of appearances in animated movies


movie title


Year of release


The number of occurrences


Toy Story

1995

23


Spirited Away

2001

11

幽灵公主 (Princess Mononoke)

1997

9


The Lion King

1994

9


Grave of the Fireflies

1988

9


Your Name

2016

8

龙猫 (My Neighbor Totoro)

1988

7


Coco (Coco)

2017

7


Howl's Moving Castle

2004

7


Zootopia

2016

6


Frozen

2013

6


WALL·E

2008

6


Inside out

2015

5

天空之城 (Laputa: Castle in the Sky)

1986

5

驯龙高手 (How to Train Your Dragon)

2010

4


Since WALL·E and Grave of the Fireflies lack official setting data, they are not used as data sources for the research.


The following is a specific list. This study will obtain the following character images from the official setting set as the research object.


<Table> 4 Movie and character image selection list

编号


movie title


role list

1


Toy Story


Woody, Buzz Lightyear, Shepherdess, Short-legged Dinosaur, Huggy Bear, Sloppy Miner, Mr. Eggman, etc.

2


Spirited Away


Chi, Chihiro, Hakuryuu/Haku, Kamuya, Yubaba/Qianbaba, Faceless Man, Mom and Dad, Fang Baobao, etc.

3

幽灵公主 (Princess Mononoke)


Ashitaka, Sang, Kaya, Fan Ji, Monk Liao, Moro, Xiao Bai, Madam Shi, etc.

4


The Lion King


Simba, Mufasa, Scar, Nana, Timon, Pumbaa, Banzai, Sanchi, Ed, Rafiki, etc.

5


Your Name


Mitsuba Miyamizu, Taki Tachibana, Ichiyo Miyamizu, Miki Okudera, Katsuhiko Kawara, Domejiji, Yotsuba Miyamizu, etc.

6

龙猫 (My Neighbor Totoro)


Big Totoro, Playing Sobi Mei, Sobi Moon, Sisters, Little Totoro, Cat Bus, Sobi Taro, Sobi Mrs. etc.

7


Coco (Coco)


Miguel, Hector, de la Cruz, Imelda, Dante, Mama Coco, Abuelita, etc.

8


Howl's Moving Castle


Young Sophie, Old Sophie, Blond Howl, Child Maluk, Cloaked Maluk, Scarecrow, Witch of the Wild, Golem, etc.

9


Zootopia


Judy Hopps, Nick Wilde, Benjamin Clawhauser, Mayor Bellweather, Dan Hurt, Finnick, Lightning, etc.

10


Frozen


Elsa, Anna, Kristoff, Olaf, Hans, baby Elsa, baby Anna, goblins, goblins, etc.

11


Inside Out


Joy, Sadness, Fear, Disgust, Anger, Riley, Jill Anderson, Mom, etc.

12


Castle in the Sky


Paz, Hida, robot-operating Hida, adventurous Hida, Muska, Dora, robot soldier, old miner, etc.

13

驯龙高手 (How to Train Your Dragon)


Hiccup, Toothless, Astrid, Gronk, Storyk, Goblin, Snowtrout, Fishlegs, etc.


Statistical analysis methods


Focus group discussions will be used to qualitatively analyze and categorize character personalities. Using Jung's archetype theory, all roles are divided into a complete analytical framework. [32]


<Table> 5 prototype and description table

原型

描述

阴影


Jung defined the shadow as "a moral problem that challenges the entire ego personality." Being aware of the shadow requires recognizing that the dark side of a person's personality is real. The shadow often symbolizes unrecognized, repressed, or denied parts of the individual that require moral effort to be realized and integrated.


Anima/Animus


The anima and animus are key archetypes in the individuation process, representing our inner "soul image" of the opposite sex and influencing our romantic relationships. Jung believed that these archetypes help us explore and integrate the opposing natures of our personality.

智者


The Wise Archetypes (Old Wise Man and Old Wise Woman) symbolize wisdom, guidance, and knowledge. They reflect our inner guru or guide, guiding us in finding the deep meaning and purpose of life.

孩子


The child archetype represents new beginnings, the possibility of growth, and hope for the future. It symbolizes the early stages of the individuation process, the birth and growth from the unconscious into conscious being.

英雄


The hero archetype symbolizes courage, strength, and the journey of overcoming obstacles. It represents the effort to pursue self-actualization in the face of internal and external challenges during the individuation process.

骗子


The Trickster archetype symbolizes rebellion, mischief, and the power of change. It challenges established norms, revealing hidden truths and possibilities through disruption and chaos.

自我


The ego archetype represents psychological integrity and the center of the individual. It is the ultimate goal of individualization and represents the process of individual pursuit of inner balance and integration. The self is the bridge between individual consciousness and unconsciousness, individual and collective.

外星人


The alien archetype symbolizes the unknown, the alien, and the boundaries of exploration in contemporary culture. It reflects human beings' fear and curiosity about the unknown, and their desire to transcend the known world.


This study aims to explore how to classify character images into the above eight archetypes based on Jung's archetype theory. To gain an in-depth understanding of readers' opinions and attitudes, focus groups were chosen as the primary research method. Focus groups are a qualitative research method that collects participants' opinions and experiences through group discussions and are suitable for exploratory research.


A total of three focus group discussions were organized in this study, with each group consisting of 8-10 readers. Participants were selected through random sampling to ensure a representative sample. Discussion topics include: understanding of animated stories, the role of characters in animated stories, and which Jungian archetype images each character embodies. The discussion guide consists of a series of open-ended questions to guide participants through in-depth discussions.


Focus group discussions were held in a conference room and each discussion lasted approximately 90 minutes. Note-taking was conducted by two researchers. Focus groups categorized the different roles based on the following descriptions of the 8 archetypes from the Jungian archetype book mentioned above. [32] In the same movie, the same character may serve as different archetypes, and the same archetype may also be reflected in different characters. Through the discussion results of the focus group, 8 suitable characters in each film were initially screened out. image. Therefore, this study will select the image that best embodies this archetype and use the Delphi method to unify opinions.


The following adjective comparison chart assisted the focus group in selecting images.


<Table> 6 Adjective Comparison List


archetypal role


Opposing Characteristics 1


Opposing Characteristics 2


Opposing Characteristics 3

阴影


bright - dark


Accept - Reject


Self-knowledge - self-denial


Anima/


Animus


Introversion - Extroversion


Emotional-rational


Heterosexualization - Homosexualization

智者


Ignorance - Knowledgeable


Chaos - Guidance


Surface - Deep

孩子


Sophisticated – Childish


Conventional - Innovative


despair - hope

英雄


timid - brave


weak - strong


Passive - Active

骗子


Integrity - Cunning


Stability - Change


serious - prank

自我


Division - Unity


Surface – Deep


Imbalance - Harmony

外星人


familiar-unfamiliar


Accept - Reject


Tradition - Innovation


The following is a specific list. This study will obtain the following character images from the official setting set as the research object.


<Table> 7 Final selected role list

编号


movie title


role list

1


Toy Story


Woody, Buzz Lightyear, Shepherdess, Dinosaur, Huggy Bear, Sloppy Miner, Mr. Eggman

2


Spirited Away


Qian, Chihiro, Hakuryuu/Haku, Kebao, Yubaba/Qianbaba, Faceless Man, Mom and Dad, Fang Baobao

3

幽灵公主 (Princess Mononoke)


Ashitaka, Sang, Kaya, Fan Ji, Monk Liao, Moro, Xiaobai, Madam Shi

4


The Lion King


Simba, Mufasa, Scar, Nana, Timon, Pumbaa, Banzai, Sanchi, Ed, Rafiki

5


Your Name


Mitsuha Miyamizu, Taki Tachibana, Ichiyo Miyamizu, Miki Okudera, Katsuhiko Kawara, Domejiji, Yotsuba Miyamizu

6

龙猫 (My Neighbor Totoro)


Big Totoro, Playing Sobi Mei, Sobi Moon, Sisters, Little Totoro, Cat Bus, Sobi Taro, Sobi Mrs.

7


Coco (Coco)


Miguel, Hector, de la Cruz, Imelda, Dante, Mama Coco, Abuelita

8


Howl's Moving Castle


Young Sophie, Old Sophie, Howl the Blond, Maruk the Child, Maruk the Cloak, Scarecrow, Witch of the Wild, Golem

9


Zootopia


Judy Hopps, Nick Wilde, Benjamin Clawhauser, Mayor Bellweather, Dan Hurt, Finnick, Lightning Gazelle

10


Frozen


Elsa, Anna, Kristoff, Olaf, Hans, Baby Elsa, Baby Anna, Goblin, Goblin

11


Inside Out


Joy, Sadness, Fear, Disgust, Anger, Riley, Jill Anderson, Mom

12


Castle in the Sky


Paz, Hida, robot-operating Hida, adventurous Hida, Muska, Dora, robot soldier, old miner

13

驯龙高手 (How to Train Your Dragon)


Hiccup, Toothless, Astrid, Fattail, Storyk, Goblin, Snowtrout, Fishlegs,


In the Durfee method study, this study first invited 20 experts in the fields of film and psychology. These experts include film critics, psychology researchers, university professors, and veteran filmmakers. The questionnaire was designed around movie character archetypes, asking experts to assign a psychological archetype label to the main character in each movie.


Using an online questionnaire tool, experts completed the first round of questionnaires and submitted their preliminary evaluations of each role. The survey results show that experts have large differences in the classification of some character prototypes. The initial survey results are summarized and fed back to the experts, showing statistics for each character's archetype classification, including the number of votes for each archetype label. Based on the feedback results, the experts re-evaluated the character prototype and conducted a second round of questionnaires. Through this feedback-evaluation cycle, differences are gradually reduced and consensus is reached. After the second round of questionnaires, most experts reached a consensus. The final results are summarized and organized into tables and charts to show the process and results agreed upon by the experts.


Through multiple rounds of surveys, experts gradually reached a consensus. Woody (Toy Story): Experts agree that Woody exhibits the "ego" archetype as he seeks psychological integrity and individual center in the film. Chi (Spirited Away): Experts agree that Chi exhibits the "hero" archetype as she displays courage and growth in the film. Faceless Man (Spirited Away): Experts initially disagreed on the classification of Faceless Man, with some believing him to be a "shadow" and others believing he was an "anima". After many rounds of discussions, experts agreed that the faceless man symbolizes the unrecognized and repressed part, and therefore is classified as a "shadow".


In the first wave of surveys, experts disagreed on the classification of certain characters, such as the Faceless Man (Spirited Away) and the Witch of the Wild (Howl's Moving Castle). Through multiple rounds of feedback and re-evaluation, the experts gradually understood the perspectives of other experts, combined with the specific performance and symbolic meaning of the characters, and finally reached a consensus. For example, the reason the Faceless Man is classified as a "Shadow" is that he represents the dark side and unrecognized part of Qian's heart, rather than the "soul image" of the opposite sex that affects her individuation process. This classification was recognized by more experts in the second round of feedback, and finally reached a consensus in the third round.


<Table> 8 Character Archetype Classification Discussion Table

编号


movie title

角色


First round of classification


Second round classification


final classification

1


Toy Story

胡迪

self(12), hero(8)

self(15), hero(5)

self

1


Toy Story


Buzz Lightyear

hero(13), anima(7)

hero(17), anima(3)

hero

1


Toy Story

牧羊女

anima(15), child(5)

anima(17), child(3)

anima

1


Toy Story


short-legged dinosaur

child(10), anima(10)

child(13), anima(7)

child

1


Toy Story

抱抱熊

trickster(13), shadow(7)

trickster(14), shadow(6)

trickster

1


Toy Story


Sloppy Miner

shadow(14), trickster(6)

shadow(13), trickster(7)

shadow

1


Toy Story


Mr. Eggman

wiseman(15), alien(5)

wiseman(17), alien(3)

wiseman

1


Toy Story

外星人

alien(10), child(10)

alien(13), child(7)

alien

2


Spirited Away


Thousand (red clothes)

hero(10), self(10)

hero(12), self(8)

hero

2


Spirited Away


Chihiro (green clothes)

self(12), hero(8)

self(14), hero(6)

self

2


Spirited Away


White Dragon/Haku

anima(15), hero(5)

anima(18), hero(2)

anima

2


Spirited Away

釜爷

trickster(13), wiseman (7)

trickster(15), wiseman (5)

trickster

2


Spirited Away


Granny Tang / Granny Qian

wiseman(14), shadow(6)

wiseman(16), shadow(4)

wiseman

2


Spirited Away

无脸男

shadow(12), anima(8)

shadow(14), anima(6)

shadow

2


Spirited Away


mom and dad

alien(11), shadow(9)

alien(13), shadow(7)

alien

2


Spirited Away

坊宝宝

child(10), trickster(10)

child(13), trickster(7)

child

3


Princess Mononoke


Ashidakar

self(10), hero(10)

self(13),

hero(7)

self

3


Princess Mononoke

hero(12), self(8)

hero(15),

self(5)

hero

3


Princess Mononoke

卡雅

child(13), anima(7)

child(16), anima(4)

child

3


Princess Mononoke

幻姬

shadow(14), child(6)

shadow(17), child(3)

shadow

3


Princess Mononoke


Monk Pimple

trickster(10), anima(10)

trickster(12), anima(8)

trickster

3


Princess Mononoke

莫洛

alien(12), trickster(8)

alien(14), trickster(6)

alien

3


Princess Mononoke

小白

wiseman(15), hero(5)

wiseman(17), hero(3)

wiseman

3


Princess Mononoke

时夫人

anima(12), child(8)

anima(14), child(6)

anima

4

狮子王

辛巴

hero(13), self(7)

hero(15), self(5)

hero

4

狮子王

穆法沙

self(14), hero(6)

self(16), hero(4)

self

4

狮子王

刀疤

shadow(15), hero(5)

shadow(17), hero(3)

shadow

4

狮子王

娜娜

anima(13), shadow(7)

anima(15), shadow(5)

anima

4

狮子王


Timon Peng Peng

trickster(12), hero(8)

trickster(14), hero(6)

trickster

4

狮子王

班仔

alien(11), trickster(9)

alien(13), trickster(7)

alien

4

狮子王

拉菲其

wiseman(14), hero(6)

wiseman(16), hero(4)

wiseman

4

狮子王

小辛巴

child(13), hero(7)

child(15), hero(5)

child

5


your name


Miyamizu Mitsuha

self(12), hero(8)

self(14), hero(6)

self

5


your name

立花瀧

hero(13), anima(7)

hero(15), anima(5)

hero

5


your name


Ichiyo Miyamizu

wiseman(14), hero(6)

wiseman(16), hero(4)

wiseman

5


your name


Okudera Miki

anima(13), wiseman(7)

anima(15), wiseman(5)

anima

5


your name


Imperial Envoy Katsuhiko Kawahara

shadow(12), hero(8)

shadow(14), hero(6)

shadow

5


your name


Daoming Temple Division

alien(11), child(9)

alien(13), child(7)

alien

5


your name


Miyamizu Yotsuba

child(10), anima(10)

child(13), anima(7)

child

5


your name


Taki's father

alien(12), child(8)

alien(14), child(6)

alien

6

龙猫

大龙猫

alien(14), hero(6)

alien(16), hero(4)

alien

6

龙猫

草壁梅

child(13), hero(7)

child(15), hero(5)

child

6

龙猫

草壁月

self(12), hero(8)

self(14), hero(6)

self

6

龙猫

姐妹

hero(14), self(6)

hero(16), self(4)

hero

6

龙猫


Totoro bus

trickster(15), shadow(5)

trickster(17), shadow(3)

trickster

6

龙猫


Taro Kusakabe

wiseman(12), hero(8)

wiseman(14), hero(6)

wiseman

6

龙猫


Sick Mrs. Caobi

shadow(13), wiseman(7)

shadow(15), wiseman(5)

shadow

6

龙猫


The recovered Mrs. Kusakabi

anima(14), trickster(6)

anima(16), trickster(4)

anima

7


Coco


Miguel (makeup)

alien(10), hero(10)

alien(12), hero(8)

alien

7


Coco

海克托

hero(12), alien(8)

hero(14), alien(6)

hero

7


Coco


de la cruz

shadow(13), hero(7)

shadow(15), hero(5)

shadow

7


Coco


Imelda

anima(14), hero(6)

anima(16), hero(4)

anima

7


Coco

丹特

wiseman(13), hero(7)

wiseman(15), hero(5)

wiseman

7


Coco


Mama Coco

child(12), hero(8)

child(14), hero(6)

child

7


Coco


Abuelita

trickster(12), hero(8)

trickster(14), hero(6)

trickster

7


Coco


Miguel's dad

alien(11), hero(9)

alien(13), hero(7)

alien

8


Howl's Moving Castle


young sophy

hero(14), self(6)

hero(16), self(4)

hero

8


Howl's Moving Castle


Old Sophie

self(12), hero(8)

self(14), hero(6)

self

8


Howl's Moving Castle


Blonde Hal

anima(13), hero(7)

anima(15), hero(5)

anima

8


Howl's Moving Castle


child maruk

child(12), hero(8)

child(14), hero(6)

child

8


Howl's Moving Castle


Cloak Maluk

wiseman(14), hero(6)

wiseman(16), hero(4)

wiseman

8


Howl's Moving Castle

稻草人

trickster(13), hero(7)

trickster(15), hero(5)

trickster

8


Howl's Moving Castle


Witch of the Wild

shadow(15), hero(5)

shadow(17), hero(3)

shadow

8


Howl's Moving Castle

傀儡

alien(11), hero(9)

alien(13), hero(7)

alien

9


Zootopia


Judy Hopps

self(12), hero(8)

self(14), hero(6)

self

9


Zootopia


Nick Wilde

hero(13), anima(7)

hero(15), anima(5)

hero

9


Zootopia


benjamin


Crowhauser

wiseman(14), hero(6)

wiseman(16), hero(4)

wiseman

9


Zootopia


mayor bellweather

shadow(12), hero(8)

shadow(14), hero(6)

shadow

9


Zootopia

小偷

trickster(13), hero(7)

trickster(15), hero(5)

trickster

9


Zootopia

闪电

alien(11), hero(9)

alien(13), hero(7)

alien

9


Zootopia

加兹尔

anima(12), child(8)

anima (14), child(6)

anima

9


Zootopia

小朱迪

child(12), hero(8)

child(14), hero(6)

child

10


Frozen

艾莎

hero(14), self(6)

hero(16), self(4)

hero

10


Frozen

安娜

self(12), hero(8)

self(14), hero(6)

self

10


Frozen


Christoph

anima(13), hero(7)

anima(15), hero(5)

anima

10


Frozen

奥拉夫

trickster(12), hero(8)

trickster(14), hero(6)

trickster

10


Frozen

汉斯

shadow(15), hero(5)

shadow(17), hero(3)

shadow

10


Frozen


Young Elsa


young anna

child(12), hero(8)

child(14), hero(6)

child

10


Frozen

地精灵

alien(11), hero(9)